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Pakistan | Family List | Violaceae | Viola

17. Viola tricolor L., Sp. Pl. 935. 1753. Ging. in DC., Prodr. 1:303-304. 1824; Klok. in Schischkin, Fl. URSS. 15: 462-465. 1949; Coode & Cull. in Davis Fl. Turk. 1:532. 1965; Val., Merx. et Schm. in Tut. et al., Fl. Europ. 2:280. 1968.

English: The Pansy.


  • Viola macedonica Boiss. & Duet

    Annual, biennial or perennial, glabrous-short retrorse hairy, upto 80 cm high herb. Stem erect, branched from base. Leaves ovate-spathulate, cordate, obtuse, crenate; stipules pinnatipartite, lanceolate, crenate, foliaceous. Flowers multi-coloured or a mixture of yellow, blue, purple and violet. Sepals lanceolate. Petals distinctly exceeding the sepals; spur 5-8 mm long, considerably straight, obtuse.

    Fl. Per.: November-June.

    Type: Described from Sweden, Herb. Linn. 1052. 21 (LINN).

    Distribution: Europe, Asia, America and Australia.

    Viola tricolor L. is widely cultivated as an ornamental. There are number of horticultural varieties under cultivation in Pakistan. In Flora Europaea, Val. et al., l.c. recognized 5 subspecies. According to them, our material mainly falls into the type subsp. tricolor L. (annuals, c. 40 cm high, firs. blue-violet) and subsp. matutina (Klokov) Valcut. (annuals, upto 80 cm high, firs. yellowish). The cultivated garden Pansy is sometimes called Viola x wittrockiana Gams (Viola tricolor var. hortensis).


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