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Pakistan | Family List | Myrsinaceae | Rhizophora

1. Rhizophora mucronata Poir., Tab. Encycl. Meth. Bot. 2:517. t. 396, f. 2. 1797. in Lam., Encycl. Meth. 6:189. 1804; DC., Prodr. 3:32. 1828; Henslow in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2:435. 1879; Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2:151. 1894; Cooke, Fl. Bomb. Pres. 1(3): 501. 1903; Talbot, For. Fl. Bomb. Pres. & Sind 2:2. fig.289. 1911; ing Hou in Van Steenis, Fl. Males. 1(5): 453. 1958; Stewart, R.R.,Ann. Cat. Fl. Pl. W. Pak. & Kash. 501. 1972; Khan, M.S., Fl. Bangladesh 7:13.1978; Macnae & Fosberg in Dassanayake & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl.Ceylon 2:491. 1981;Saifullah, S.M.,Mangrove Ecosystem of Pakistan, Mid. E. Pub.137:73.1982.

Vern.: Kamo, Kunro, Bhora, Timmar.


  • Rhizophora macrorrhiza Griff.
  • Rhizophora mangle Roxb.

    A much branched large shrub or moderate sized tree, up to 10 m tall, supported on adventitious prop roots from stem and branches with reddish brown bark. Leaves with 1-3 cm long, stout petiole; lamina broadly elliptic or oblong-elliptic to oval, (6-) 8-15 (-20) cm long. (3.5-) 4-8 (-10) cm broad, cuneate at the base, entire, apical mucro 5-9 mm long, upper surface bright green but lower with minute, reddish-black lenticular dots, glabrous; stipules 4-6 cm long, minutely rugulose, acute. Peduncles 4-many-flowered, usually longer than the petioles, borne in axils of leaves of same year, 4-6 cm long, bearing 2-3 flowered cymes. Flowers on 4-8 mm long, rugulose, upwardly thickened pedicels; bracteoles orbiculate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, apically truncate. Calyx tube 2-3 mm long, lobes pale-yellow, narrowly ovate, lanceolate, 10-15 mm long, keeled. Petals yellowish-white, oblong, nearly as long as calyx lobes or slightly shorter, densely villose on margins, sparsely hairy on back and within. Stamens almost sessile, anthers 6-8 mm long, apiculate. Ovary ovoid with free conical portion protruding beyond disc; style inconspicuous, stigma 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid, 4-5 cm long, 2-3.5 cm in diameter, dull brown-green. Hypocotyle rugose, 20-40 cm long, 1.5-2 cm broad.

    Fl.Per.: July-October

    Type: Described from Mascarcne Islands.

    Distribution: N. Australia, Malaysia, Fiji, Near Caledonia, New Hebrides, Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, E. & S. Africa and Micronesia.

    The fruit is said to be eaten and its juice is fermented. The bark is used for tanning leather. The wood is used as fuel.


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