3. Marrubium vulgare L., Sp. Pl. 583. 1753. Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 153; Hook. f., l.c. 671; Mukerjee l.c. 150; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. P1. W. Pak. & Kashm. 617. 1972; Seybold in Stuttg. Beitr. Naturk. ser. A, 310: 7. 1978; Seybold in Rech. f. Fl. Iran. 150: 90, t. 89. 1982; Kovalevskaja in Vvedensky, Conspect. Fl. As. Med. 9: 38. 1987.
Closely related to Marrubium anisodon, but with shorter stems (to 60 cm), smaller leaves (up to c. 20 x 30 mm) with upper surface (on dried material) darker than lower, calyx teeth 10 subequal, 1.5-2 mm, with Imitate or circinate tips in fruit, calyx tube 4-5.5 mm long, and corolla 7-8 mm long.
Fl. Per.: April-June. Fr.: July-September.
Type: "Hab. in Europae borealioris ruderatis" (BM).
Distribution: throughout Europe and much of Asia; introduced and naturalized in many other parts of the world including N. America, South Africa and Australia.
The differences between Marrubium vulgate and Marrubium anisodon given above are, in most cases, enough to separate the two species, but some specimens are intermediate (e.g. D-6 Quetta: Ziarat, Rasool Baksh 17, 27, KUH); cf Hedge & Lamond l.c. fig. 1, 1968. And in some parts of our area, the two species are sympatric (e.g. Chitral, N Waziristan, Swat and Kurram). They would be an interesting pair to study biosystematically. Marrubium vulgate is mainly a European-Mediterranean species and Marrubium anisodon more an inland steppic Asiatic species. The available chromosome counts give Marrubium vulgate as 2n = 34 and Marrubium anisodon 2n = 54 (cf Seybold, 1978).