29. Cyperus haspan Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 45. 1753; C.B.Clarke, l.c. 600; R.R.Stewart, l.c. 89; Kern, Cyperaceae in van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 7.3: fig. 56. 1974; Haines & Lye, Sedges and Rushes E Afr.: figs. 317-318. 1983; Kukkonen in Rech.f., l.c. 124; .
Annual or perennial, 15-40 cm. Roots fibrous, reddish. Rhizome short, horizontal or ascending, with short internodes. Stem 1-2 mm diam., sharply trigonous, sides concave, smooth. Leaves c. half of stem length; sheaths up to 10 cm, usually distinctly reddish, soft, mouth oblique or, in leaves with blades, nearly straight; ligule 0; blades few, up to c. 15 cm, 2-3 mm wide, flat or channelled, margins and keel smooth, apex acute, slightly scabrous. Inflorescence a compound anthelodium, up to 90 mm; 1-2 bracts foliose, up to 70 mm, shorter than inflorescence; primary branches 7-12, up to 70 mm; secondary anthelodia 5-20 mm long, bracts glume-like; cluster of spikes 5-10 mm, formed by (1-)3-8 sessile spikes; spikes 3-12 x c. 1 mm, with 8-35 glumes; glume-like bract c. 1 mm, glume-like prophyll clasping, rounded, bi-nerved, sterile, c. 0.8; rachis c. 0.5 mm wide, tetrangular, reddish brown, internodes c. 1 mm, not clearly winged; glumes 1.3-1.6 mm, cymbiform, acute, slightly keeled near slightly recurved and barbed apex, sides brown or reddish-brown, obscurely bi-nerved, glossy, margins narrowly scarious. Stamens 3. Nut 1-1.4 x 0.8-1 mm, obovoid or ellipsoid, trigonous, white-reticulate or white-papillose.
Fl. Per.: July - November.
Type: "Habitat in India, Aethiopia."
R.R.Stewart (l.c.) reported it from Gilgit, Kashmir (Srinagar, Ganderbal), Khyber Agency and Sind (Thatta, Mirpur Sakro).
Rice fields (common acc. to Cooke, 1908 and Stewart, 1972); Distribution: In tropics of Old and New World; Africa S of Sahara, East Africa, Pakistan, India eastwards.
Description based on material from India and Africa. Kern (Fl. Malesiana 1974) claimed that correct spelling of epithet should be "halpan", which appears not to be true [Wilson, Cyperaceae Newsletter 9: 8. 1991; and Telopea 5: 598. 1994].