9. Cyperus malaccensis Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 146. 1791; Boiss., Fl. Or. 5: 372. 1882; C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 608. 1893; R.R.Stewart, l.c. 90. 1972; Kukkonen in Rech.f., l.c. 96.
Chlorocyperus malaccensis (Lam.) Palla, Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 17(6). 1911; Koyama, in Li & al.,Fl. of Taiwan, 5: Pl. 1340. 1979; illustration represents subp. monophyllus (Vahl) T. Koyama.
Perennial, more than 1 m; rhizome with short stolons. Stem 4-6 mm in diam., sharply trigonous, sides concave above. Leaves reduced; sheaths few, up to more than 30 cm, grey-brown or reddish, lowest bladeless; ligule 0 (?); blades 1-3, short, up to c.10 mm wide, flat, margins smooth, apex acute, smooth or scabrous. Inflorescence simple anthelodium, up to more than 10 cm diam., usually wider than long; bracts 3-4, longer than inflorescence; primary branches up to 7 cm, spreading, tubular prophylls up to c.8 mm; cluster of spikes with usually more than 15 spikes, in almost spherical group, lowest often almost digitately pedunculate. Spikes 10-25 x 1.5-2 mm, with 10-40 glumes, glume-like bract c. 1 mm, acute, glume-like prophyll bi-nerved, blunt, base spongy; rachis almost straight, quadrangular with sharp, narrowly winged angles; glumes c.2.2 mm, cymbiform when fresh, almost flat, inwards curved when dry, blunt, reddish-brown, mid-nerve not prominent, margins scarious, grey-yellow. Anthers c.1 mm. Nut c.1.8 x 0.5 mm, trigonous, slightly compressed, dark brown, glossy, very finely reticulate.
Fl. Per.: October.
Type: "de Malac", Sonnerat (P-Lam.!).
Reported from Sind by C. B. Clarke (l.c.) and by Blatter & McCann (R.R.Stewart, l.c.).
Mud banks in brackish estuary of Indus (R.R.Stewart, l.c. 1972); Distribution: From Persian Gulf area, India and S. China to N. Australia and Polynesia; from Taiwan to Japan replaced by subsp. monophyllus, characterized by bracts shorter than inflorescence.