6. Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl, Enum. Pl. 2: 287. 1805.
Scirpus miliaceus L., Syst. Veg., ed. 10: 868. 1759; Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud., Voy. Uranie 10: 413. 1829; Kral in Sida 4(2): Pl. 29. 1971; Haines & Lye, Sedges and Rushes E Afr., Fig. 126. 1983.
Tufted, glabrous annual, 10-40 cm. Stem 0.8-1.2 mm diam., usually triangular or quadrangular, sometimes compressed, sides deeply concave. Leaves as long as stem or longer; lower sheaths open, prominently nerved, with widely scarious margins, upper 2(-3) closed, 2-8 cm, mouth oblique, one side green, many-nerved, nerves ending in acute apex, mouth margin scarious; blades 1.5-2 mm wide, laterally compressed, adaxial side narrow groove at one "margin", margins towards apex slightly barbed. Inflorescence up to 50 mm diam., taller than wide, with 15-50 spikes; bracts up to 20 mm, involute; branches triangular or compressed, much longer than spikes, smooth or distal parts barbed. Spikes 1.5-3 mm, pedunculate or sessile, globular or ellipsoid, obtuse, pale yellow to brown, with from few to more than 30 glumes; spike rachis castaneous to almost black, with narrow hyaline wings; glumes 1-1.2 mm, cymbiform, ovate, keeled, apiculate or sometimes obtuse, brown to almost hyaline. Stamens 1-2, anthers c. 1 x 0.3 mm, mucronate; style 0.3-0.4 mm, brown, base mostly bulbous, deciduous; stigmas (2-)3. Nut 0.5-0.6 x 0.3-0.4 mm, globular to obovoid, faintly trabeculate, papillose, grey to pale yellowish or white.
Fl. Per.: (August-) September-October.
Neotype: French Guiana, ”Trou Caimans”, Cremers, Escobar & Feuillet 12446 (US) Isoneotypes; (B, CAY, NY, P, U) Strong & Kral in Taxon 48: 387, 1999.
On wet ground; river sides; rice fields; Distribution: From Iraq to India, China, Japan, Philippines, Malesia, Africa S of Sahara, Puerto Rico (distribution insufficiently known); pantropical, esp. rice weed.
It must be made clear, that here the well founded proposal by Strong and Kral (l.c.) to conserve Scirpus miliaceus L. with the type is followed and the name F. miliacea (L.) Vahl is being used in its traditional sense. In Fl. Iranica (Kukkonen 1998) the name F. littoralis Gaud. was applied for this species. S.T. Blake (Journ. Arnold Arbor. 35: 217, 1954) lectotypified S. miliaceus L. with LINN 71.41, which represents F. quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth, the following species.