7. Fimbristylis quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 2: 229. 1837; C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., l.c. 644; R. R. Stewart, l.c. 96.
Scirpus quinquangularis Vahl, Enum. Pl. 2: 279. 1805; Clarke, Ill. Cyper., Pl. 43: figs 4-6. 1909. Haines & Lye, Sedges and Rushes E. Afr.: figs. 127-128. 1983.
Tufted annual, 5-15 cm. Stem c. 0.5 mm diam., glabrous, with five sharp edges and deep grooves between. Leaves when present, numerous, longer than stem; lower sheaths open, with widely scarious margins, upper closed, almost completely scarious, with distinct veins on one side, mouth wide, oblique, margins scarious; blades of basal leaves 1-1.5 mm wide, flat, barbed towards apex. Inflorescence 1-3 cm diam., of 10-50 solitary spikes; bracts 0.2-0.5 mm wide, shorter than inflorescence, involute, apex barbed; branches triangular (or compressed), scabrous. Spikes 2-4 x 1-1.5 mm, with 5-20 glumes, pedunculate, ellipsoid, angular, more or less acute, greenish to dark brown; rachis yellowish to brown, with prominent castaneous wings; glumes widely ovate, keeled, midrib green to pale green, mucronate. Stamens (1-)2, up to 1.5 mm; anthers c. 0.5 mm; style c. 0.5 mm, upper part slightly ciliate, stylopodium small; stigmas 3, longer than style. Nut 0.5-0.6 mm, globular or widely obovoid, trigonous, pale yellow to pale brown, more or less papillose and faintly trabeculate.
Fl. Per.: August-October.
Lectotype: India, König (C-Herb. König) 16:3-4 (microfiche!); lectotype selected by S.T. Blake in Journ. Arnold Arbor. 35: 218, 1954.
On wet ground; river banks; rice fields; Distribution: Tropics of SE Asia from Pakistan and India to S. China, Taiwan, Australia and Malaysia; recently, probably, introduced to America, Puerto Rico.
The proposal by Strong & Kral (Taxon 48: 387, 1999) to conserve the name Scirpus miliaceus with a conserved type (see previous species) is followed here. Consequently the name F. quinquangularis (Vahl) Kunth is used (cf. Kukkonen 1998).