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Pakistan | Family List | Euphorbiaceae | Chrozophora

3. Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Raf., Chlor. Aetn. 4. 1813. Muell. Arg. inDC., Prodr. 15. 2: 748. 1866; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 408. 1887; Pax in Engl., Pflanzenreich 4. 147. 6: 22. 1912; Prain in Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew 1918: (2, 3): 103. 1918; Pojarkova in Fl. U.R.S.S. 14: 290. 1949; Rech. f. & Schiman-Czeika, Fl. Iranica 6: 6. 1964; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 446. 1972.

Vern.: Kappo, Chisik, Ner Buti.


  • Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng.
  • Chrozophora obliqua (Vahl) Adr. Juss. ex Spreng.
  • Chrozophora oblongifolia sensu auctt. plur., non (Del.) Adr. Juss. ex Spreng
  • Chrozophora verbascifolia (Willd.) Adr. Juss. ex Spreng.
  • Croton tinctorius L.

    An erect-ascending annual herb up to 75 cm, sparingly, evenly or densely stellate-pubescent. Petioles 2-10 cm long. Leaf-blades broadly ovate-rhombic to ovate-lanceolate, (2-) 3-7 x (1-) 2-6 cm, obtuse, subacute or acute at the apex, cuneate or rounded or rarely subtruncate at the base, subentire to repand-dentate, 3 (-5)-nerved from the base, basal glands fairly prominent, sparingly, evenly or densely pubescent above and beneath. Stipules filiform, 1-3 mm long. Inflorescences 1-4 cm long, often produced above a stem di- or trichotomy. Male flowers subsessile; sepals lanceolate, 3-4 mm long, stellate-pubescent; petals elliptic-lanceolate, 4 mm long, lepidote without, yellowish-green; disc thick, c. 1 mm diam.; stamens (3-) 4-10 (-12), the filaments variously united into a column 3.5 mm high, anthers biseriate, 1.5 mm long. Female flowers: pedicels 5 mm long, extending to 3 cm in fruit and becoming deflexed, often upto 4 on a short peduncle; sepals and petals narrowly linear, otherwise as the ♂ sepals; ovary 2 mm diam., densely silvery-lepidote; styles stellate-pubescent and papillose, deeply bipartite, 2-3 mm long. Fruit rounded-trilobate, 5-6 x 8-9 mm, often somewhat tuberculate, stellate-lepidote, tinged with reddish-purple. Seeds triangular-ovoid, 4-5 x 3-4 mm, tuberculate, grey.

    Fl. Per.: Jan: Sept.; Fr. Per.: Apr: Sept.

    Holotype: France, Montpellier, Loefling s.n., Herb. LINN., 1140/5! (LINN).

    Distribution: From Spain and N.W. Africa eastwards to Arabia and N.W. India. A common weed of fallow fields and dry waste places on sandy clay loam; 900 - 7500'/275 - 2300 m.

    There is perhaps a case for keeping oblique separate from tinctoria further west, but in the east of their range they merge together.


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