31. Carex halleriana Asso, Syn. Stirp. Aragon. 133. 1779; C.B.Clarke, l.c. 746; R.R.Stewart, l.c. 77; Kukkonen in Rech.f., l.c. 248.
C. gynobasis Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauph. 2: 206. 1787.
Tufted perennial, 12-30 cm. Stem sharply to obtusely trigonous, smooth or scabrous along edges, papillose. Leaves equal to or slightly shorter than stem; sheaths 15-30 mm, grey-brown, finally fibrous, margin of scarious side straight; ligule c. 0.1 mm; blades 0.4-1.5 mm wide, flat or revolute, long acuminate, margins and mid-vein scabrous towards apex. Inflorescence of 1 male and 2-3 pedunculate female or androgynous spikes below; solitary basal, female or androgynous spikes mostly present. Bracts up to equalling inflorescence, practically sheath-less. Male spikes 10-15 x 2-4 mm, narrowly ovoid to club-shaped, subsessile to pedunculate; male glumes c. 6 x 1.5 mm, narrowly obovate, light brown, apex obtuse, scarious. Female spikes globular, 6-10 mm diam., with 4-8(-10) utricles; female glumes 4.5-5.8 x 2.1-2.6 mm, ovate, obtuse, light brown, margins scarious; utricles 4.5-5.5 x 1.5-2 mm, obovoid, triangular, abruptly contracting to beak, puberulent, conspicuously nerved, green, beak c. 0.5 mm, with conspicuous nerves, green, bifid or oblique, ostiole margins scarious. Stigmas 3. Nut c. 4.5 x 1.5 mm, including c. 0.4 mm style base and c. 0.8 mm stipe, ellipsoid, trigonous, greenish yellow, finely puncticulate.
Fl. Per.: March - June.
Type: Spain, Aragonia: ”En el monte de Harrera, en la Sierra de Villaroya, circa Calcena”.
Rocky and grassy dry slopes; Distribution: NW Africa, S and southern C Europe, Crimea, Turkey, Caucasus, NW Iran (Elburz Mts.), ?Kashmir.
Pinwill’s record for ”Sind” [? Kashmir, Sind valley] is doubtful; it is cited by both Clarke (1894, 1898) and Kükenthal (1909). Clarke (1898) gives the distribution area as ’from Cabul to Central Europa’, but no specimens were seen from Afghanistan, and in Iran it is known only in the NW parts and Elburz Mts. Pinwill specimens at K lack an exact locality and are often misleading (Stewart 1972).