2. Pycreus flavidus (Retz.) T. Koyama, Journ. Jap. Bot. 51: 316. 1976; Kukkonen in Rech.f., l.c. 146.
Cyperus flavidus Retz., Observ. bot. 5: 13. 1788; C.B.Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 600. 1893; C. globosus All., Auct. Fl. Pedemont.: 47 (1789), non Forssk. 1775; Pycreus globosus (All.) Reichenb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 140. 1830. Cyperus nilagiricus Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Cyperac.: 2. 1855; - Ovcz., Fl. Tadjik. SSR 2: Tabl. 1,1-4. 1963 (as P. globosus). Hooper, in Townsend & Guest, Fl. Iraq 8: pl. 81. 1985.
Tufted, small annual, or sometimes caespitose perennial, 15-50 cm. Stem 1-2 mm diam., trigonous, basal parts almost terete, grooved, otherwise smooth. Leaves shorter than stem; sheaths 20-80 mm, brown or yellow-brown, mouth margin straight; blades up to 15 cm, 1-3 mm wide, flat or folded, margins involute, smooth, apex long, trigonous, acute, scabrous. Inflorescence a single globose group of up to c. 50 subsessile spikes or irregular anthelodium, up to c. 50 mm diam.; 1-2 bracts foliose, to 10(-20) cm; primary branches to 50 mm, tubular prophyll brown or yellowish. Spikes 8-30 mm, 2-2.5 mm wide, compressed, with up to c. 50 glumes, glume-like bract c. 2.5 mm, glume-like prophyll c. 2.5 mm, blunt, basal part adaxially swollen; rachis quadrangular, almost straight, brown, internodes c. 0.8 mm, lateral sides deeply concave, margins sharp; glumes c. 2.5 mm, cymbiform, blunt, mid-vein area green, sides reddish brown, margins widely scarious. Stamens 2. Nut 0.8-1 mm, ellipsoid or obovoid, bi-convex, with a short stipe, apiculate, brown, reticulate, and often papillose.
Fl. Per.: (March) July - August.
Type: India, Tamil Nadu, "e Tranquebaria misit honor. König".
Along rivers and brooklets, rice fields; Distribution: S. Europe, a single record from Algeria, Israel, Iraq, Turkey, east to Pakistan, NW India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia (Kern 1974, as Cyperus flavidus) and Australia.
Pycreus flavidus is often confused with P. flavescens (see below), which is vegetatively much alike. A reliable distinguishing character is the shape of epidermal cells of nuts, which in P. flavidus are isodiametric, but in P. flavescens much longer than wide. The species is variable. Russian authors distinguish in C. Asia both P. flavidus (mostly as P. globosus) and P. nilagiricus (Steud.) Camus (Cyperus nilagiricus Hochst. ex Steud.), but the latter may not merit taxonomic recognition (see Kern 1974: 649).