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Pakistan | Family List | Poaceae | Phalaris

Phalaris aquatica Linn., Amoen. Acad. 4:264. 1755. Tutin in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 5: 244. 1980.

  • Phalaris nodosa Murr.
  • Phalaris tuberosa Linn.

    Tufted perennial. Culms up to 150 cm high, often bulbous at the base. Panicle 1.5-11 cm long, 1-2.5 cm wide, spiciform and cylindrical or occasionally lobed at the base. Glumes 4.4-7.5 mm long, acute, broadly winged, the wing margin entire; sterile floret 1, subulate, 0.2-2.2 mm long, pubescent (sometimes with a short second floret up to 0.5 mm long); fertile floret lanceolate, 3.1-4.6 mm long, light brown, densely pubescent.

    Fl. & Fr. Per.: June-August.

    Type: Egypt, Hasselquist (LINN).

    Distribution: Pakistan (Baluchistan: introduced); native to the Mediterranean region, but widely introduced elsewhere.

    Phalaris aquatica is based on two specimens, an Egyptian plant collected by Hasselquist, which is the same as Linnaeus’ own Phalaris tuberosa, and an Italian plant illustrated by Barrelier (1714) which is almost certainly Phalaris tuberosa. An illustration by Buxbaum (1728) of a plant from the Bosphorus is also cited by Linnaeus under Phalaris aquatica. The base of this plant is not illustrated, however, so its identity must remain a mystery. It may be Phalaris aquatica (or Phalaris tuberose) although Bor (in Fl. Iran. 349) was quite certain that it is not. Despite repeated misuse of the name Phalaris aquatica in the earlier literature, its identity is quite clear and Bor was not justified in rejecting it as a nomen confusum.

    Bulb Canary Grass is introduced in Pakistan and is a valuable fodder grass.


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