M. QAISER AND S. NAZIMUDDIN
Rhamnus spina-christi L.
A medium-size tree, with spreading, greyish white branches, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Stipular spines in pairs, one erect, c. 2 cm long, the other recurved 5-8 mm long, sometimes spines absent. Leaves 2-6 x 1-4 cm ovate-elliptic or suborbiculer, glabrous or pubscent on nerves beneath, rounded to subcordate at base, obtuse or shortly acuminate, margin entire or obsoletely crenate, 3-nerved; petiole 3-12 mm long, glabrous or puberulous. Inflorescence axillary tomentose, pedicel woolly, c. 3-5 mm long. Flowers 4-6 mm across, greenish yellow. Calyx c. 1 mm long, keeled within, pubescent, ovate, ± acute, petals spathulate; 1.25 mm long. Disc prominently 10-lobed, glabrous, grooved.
Distribution: N. & E. Africa, Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, S. Iran, Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and N.W. India.