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Stephen L. Timme

Plants dioicous, strongly dorsiventally flattened, with alternate, unlobed wings (lobes, leaf scales). Branching symmetrically pseudodichotomous or simple. Rhizoids present, unbranched, smooth-walled, colorless, arising at the base or near the base of the ventral surface or along the costal region. Ventral scales absent. Cells thin-walled and lacking noticeable oil bodies. Gametangia developing acropetally, one per involucre. Antheridia and archegonia developing in 1-stratose, somewhat bottle-shaped or tubular involucres, generally scattered over the dorsal surface. Sporangia with a very short or essentially lacking seta. Capsule cleistocarpic, 1-stratose, nurse cells (sterile cells) present; elaters absent. Spores remaining in tetrads or separating at maturity.

Genera 2 (2 in the flora): on soil in subtropical to temperate areas; North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Australia.


Shuster, R. M. 1992. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, East of the Hundredth Meridian. Chicago.

Lower Taxon


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