Description from Flora of China
Borinda Stapleton; Sinarundinaria Nakai.
Small (ca. 1 m) to subarborescent (to 15 m) bamboos. Rhizomes pachymorph, short relative to culm height, 10–30(–50) cm, with short neck. Culms unicaespitose, basally erect, apically nodding to pendulous; internodes terete, smooth or finely ridged; nodes with level or weakly prominent supra-nodal ridge, usually narrower than sheath scar. Buds ovoid to lanceolate, branch sheathing reduced. Branches initially 7–15 per node in mid-culm, above promontory, initially erect, becoming deflexed, subequal. Culm sheaths linear, rounded, or triangular; blade usually reflexed. Leaves small to medium-sized; blades glossy and thickened, or matte and delicate, transverse veins prominent. Inflorescence racemose to paniculate, compressed or open, ebracteate or branches subtended by a series of persistent, small, delicate sheaths, unilateral or not. Spikelets several flowered. Glumes (1 or)2, unequal; lemma apically obtuse or acute, mucronate to awned; palea equal to or shorter than lemma, 2-keeled, apex bifid; lodicules 3. Stamens 3; filaments free, slender; anthers yellow or purple. Style 1 or 2; stigmas 2 or 3, plumose. Caryopsis oblong to ovoid. New shoots May–Sep.
Fargesia was originally described for a single species from central China with dense, spathed, unilateral racemes and short rhizomes. Some authors have suggested that on this basis, it should be referred to the earlier, Himalayan genus Thamnocalamus, which also has rather dense, initially spathed inflorescences. However, bud and branch morphology and molecular evidence suggest that the genera are not so closely related.
Many species in Fargesia lack dense, spathed, unilateral inflorescences. As their flowers have become known, several have been moved into a genus established specifically to accommodate such clump-forming species, Borinda. In order for all these species to be listed under the same genus, they are all temporarily maintained under Fargesia, as in FRPS (9(1), 1996). The relationships among Fargesia, Thamnocalamus, Yushania, and allies are under investigation (Guo and Li, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 30: 1–12. 2004).
Fargesia brevipes, F. cuspidata, F. ungulata, and F. vicina (species nos. 75–78) could not be included in the following key because of lack of information on their culms and culm sheaths.
Taxa incertae sedis
Fargesia macrophylla Hsueh & C. M. Hui, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 258. 1998.
阔叶箭竹 kuo ye jian zhu
Rhizome sympodial. Culms 2–3 m, 0.5–1 cm in diam.; internodes terete, 28–38 cm, initially thinly white powdery, glabrous, hollow; sheath scar prominent, glabrous. Branches very many per node, subequal. Culm sheaths persistent, shorter than internode, leathery, sometimes scattered setose, margins densely ciliate, longitudinal ribs only laterally conspicuous; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule truncate, 2–5 mm; blade reflexed, base narrower than mouth or sheath. Leaves 3–5 per ultimate branch; sheath glabrous; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule rounded or truncate, ca. 1 mm; blade 15–25 × 2–4 cm, proximally pilose, secondary veins 5–7-paired, transverse veins distinct. Inflorescence unknown.
● 1900–2000 m. Yunnan (Fugong).
This taxon appears to key out with Fargesia pauciflora (species no. 54); the authors compared it with F. hsuehiana, which could be distinguished by, e.g., the initially setose culm internodes and nodes, culm sheath ligules only ca. 0.7 mm, and smaller leaves, 6–14 × 0.7–1.2 cm.
Fargesia nujiangensis Hsueh & C. M. Hui, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 261. 1998.
怒江箭竹 nu jiang jian zhu
Fargesia nujiangensis f. lanpingensis J. R. Hsueh & C. M. Hui; F. nujiangensis f. striata J. R. Hsueh & C. M. Hui.
Rhizome sympodial. Culms 3–5 m, 1–3 cm in diam.; internodes terete, 23–30 cm, prominently ridged, initially densely white powdery or waxy, filled with pith (hollow in f. lanpingensis); nodes glabrous. Branches 5 per node, equal. Culm sheaths soon or gradually deciduous, streaked with yellow in f. striata, shorter than internode, leathery, sparsely caducous-setose, margins distally ciliate, longitudinal ribs prominent, transverse veins not evident, apex truncate or sometimes retuse; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule 2–5 mm; blade reflexed (erect in f. striata), base narrower than mouth or sheath. Leaves 2 or 3 per ultimate branch; sheath glabrous; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule ca. 1 mm; blade lanceolate, 5–10 × 0.5–0.6 cm, glabrous, secondary veins 2- or 3-paired, transverse veins obscure. Inflorescence unknown.
● 2500–2900 m. Yunnan (Gaoligong Shan).
Fargesia nujiangensis was compared by its authors with F. hsuehiana, which differs most obviously by having initially setose culm internodes, 6–9 branches per culm node, and persistent culm sheaths.
Fargesia stricta Hsueh & C. M. Hui, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 18: 266. 1998.
马兹箭竹 ma zi jian zhu
Culms 5–8 m, 2–3 cm in diam.; internodes terete, 30–37 cm, obscurely ridged, glabrous, hollow or filled with pith toward culm apex; wall about as thick as cavity; supra-nodal ridge prominent, remains of sheath base persistent. Branches 3–5(–8) per node, unequal. Culm sheaths soon deciduous, oblong, leathery, brown setose, setae densest proximally, longitudinal ribs prominent, margins not ciliate; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule 1–3 mm, shortly ciliate; blade reflexed, linear-lanceolate, narrower than mouth of sheath. Leaves 3 or 4(or 5) per ultimate branch; auricles and oral setae absent; ligule ca. 1 mm; blade lanceolate, 5–10 × 0.5–0.8 cm, secondary veins 2- or 3-paired, transverse veins obscure. Inflorescence unknown.
● 2200–2300 m. Yunnan (Lushui).
The authors compared this species with what is now Himalayacalamus collaris.
In addition, the following species have been described from China:
Fargesia brevistipedis T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 14. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Tianquan). In the protologue it was compared with F. pauciflora.
Fargesia incrassata T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 16. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Tianquan). In the protologue it was compared with F. fractiflexa (Drepanostachyum fractiflexum in this account).
Fargesia ostrina T. P. Yi (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 22: 251. 2000) was described from Sichuan (Wanyuan). In the protologue it was compared with F. murielae.
About 90 species: China, E Himalayas, Vietnam; at least 78 species (77 endemic) in China.
(Authors: Li Dezhu (李德铢), Guo Zhenhua (郭振华); Chris Stapleton)