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Scrophulariaceae A. L. Jussieu

玄参科

Description from Flora of China

Herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely trees; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled, or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple or sometimes pinnately dissected. Inflorescences racemes, spikes, or thyrsoid panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic. Calyx often persistent, (2-)4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate. Corolla sympetalous; limb (3 or)4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous, sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal, free or confluent. Nectary often present at base of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland. Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous, rarely 2 per locule, on axile placentas, anatropous or hemitropous. Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores or irregularly dehiscent, rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous, sometimes winged; testa often reticulate; hilum lateral or ventral; endosperm fleshy or absent; embryo straight or curved.

About 220 genera and 4500 species: cosmopolitan; 61 genera (seven endemic) and 681 species (415 endemic) throughout China but with a greater concentration in SW China.

Tsoong Puchiu & Yang Hanbi, eds. 1979. Scrophulariaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 67(2): 1-431. Tsoong Puchiu, ed. 1963. Scrophulariaceae (2). Fl. Reipulb. Popularis Sin. 68: 1-449.

(Authors: Hong De-yuan, Yang Han-bi, Jin Cun-li; Noel H. Holmgren)

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