Description from Flora of China
Menstruocalamus T. P. Yi; Oreocalamus Keng; Qiongzhuea Hsueh & T. P. Yi.
Shrubby bamboos, rarely subarborescent. Rhizomes leptomorph, with running underground stems. Culms usually diffuse, sometimes tillering (pluricaespitose), erect; internodes terete or 4-angled, often basally grooved above branches; nodes prominent to very prominent, basal nodes often with a ring of sparse or dense root thorns; sheath scars usually with a ring of pubescence or persistent base of culm sheath. Branches 3(–7 on upper culm), subequal, buds ovate-triangular, open at front, prophyll reduced. Culm sheaths deciduous and leathery, or sometimes persistent and papery; auricles minute or absent; blade reduced, to 1 cm, narrow. Leaves (1 or)2–5 per ultimate branch; blade lanceolate, base cuneate. Inflorescence fully bracteate, weakly iterauctant, 1–3 single pseudospikelet racemes loosely fasciculate, subtended by gradually enlarged bracts. Spikelets several to many flowered, sessile. Rachilla disarticulating. Glumes usually 1–3, frequently one subtending a bud; lemma papery or membranous; palea membranous, 2-keeled, obtuse; lodicules 3, membranous. Stamens 3; filaments free. Ovary ellipsoid; style 1, short; stigmas 2 or 3, plumose. Fruit a nutlike caryopsis with a hardened pericarp. New shoots Apr–Nov.
In addition to the species treated below, Chimonobambusa tianquanensis T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 11. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Tianquan). In the protologue it was compared with C. quadrangularis. Qiongzhuea gracilis W. T. Lin, (J. Bamboo Res. 19(4): 1. 2000) was described from Guangdong (Yangshan). In the protologue it was compared with Q. opienensis (C. opienensis in this account). Qiongzhuea multigemmia T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 18. 2000) was described from Sichuan (Yingjing). In the protologue it was compared with Q. verruculosa (C. verruculosa in this account).
About 37 species: E Asia; 34 species (31 endemic) in China.
(Authors: Li Dezhu (李德铢); Chris Stapleton)