Description from Flora of China
Herbs, perennial, aquatic or in marshes, with creeping rhizomes. Stems simple or branched, robust or slender. Leaves alternate, distichous, erect, emergent or floating, sheathed at base. Plants monoecious. Bracts leaflike. Inflorescence either of globose heads on upper part of stems and branches with several male and female heads in a panicle, raceme, or spike, male heads above female, or of a single cylindric spike with lower part female and upper part male. Flowers minute, numerous. Perianth segments of 3-6 chaffy elongate scales or absent. Male flowers with 1 or more stamens; anthers basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent. Female flowers bracteolate or with fine hairs at base; ovary 1-loculed, rarely 2-loculed, narrow at base or on a long capillary stalk; styles simple or forked; stigma unilateral, broadened or spatulate; ovule 1. Fruit minute, nutlike, indehiscent, falling off together with stalk if present. Seeds with thin testa.
Chen Yaodong. 1992. Typhaceae and Sparganiaceae. In: Sun Xiangzhong, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 8: 1-12, 23-31.
Two genera and ca. 35 species: tropical and temperate regions; two genera and 23 species (six endemic) in China.
(Authors: Sun Kun (孙坤); David A. Simpson)