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Dinghushan | Family List | Ginkgoaceae | Ginkgo

Ginkgo biloba L.

银杏

Description from Flora of China

Salisburia adiantifolia Smith; S. biloba (Linnaeus) Hoffmansegg.

Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 4 m d.b.h.; bark light gray or grayish brown, longitudinally fissured especially on old trees; crown conical initially, finally broadly ovoid; long branchlets pale brownish yellow initially, finally gray, internodes (1-) 1.5-4 cm; short branchlets blackish gray, with dense, irregularly elliptic leaf scars; winter buds yellowish brown, ovate. Leaves with petiole (3-)5-8(-10) cm; blade pale green, turning bright yellow in autumn, to 13 × 8(-15) cm on young trees but usually 5-8 cm wide, those on long branchlets divided by a deep, apical sinus into 2 lobes each further dissected, those on short branchlets with undulate distal and margin notched apex. Pollen cones ivory colored, 1.2-2.2 cm; pollen sacs boat-shaped, with widely gaping slit. Seeds elliptic, narrowly obovoid, ovoid, or subglobose, 2.5-3.5 × 1.6-2.2 cm; sarcotesta yellow, or orange-yellow glaucous, with rancid odor when ripe; sclerotesta white, with 2 or 3 longitudinal ridges; endotesta pale reddish brown. Pollination Mar-Apr, seed maturity Sep-Oct.

A relict species of the Mesozoic era, this and other (extinct) species of Ginkgo were formerly widespread throughout the world. The atavistic, leaf-marginal seeds of one cultivated clone may suggest an affinity with the extinct pteridosperms. Ginkgo biloba is now a rare species in the wild, but has been widely cultivated as an ornamental, probably for more than 3000 years. It provides shade and is tolerant of a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions, including pollution. It is sacred to Buddhists and is often planted near temples. The wood is used in furniture making, the leaves are medicinal and used for pesticides, the roots are used as a cure for leucorrhea, the seeds are edible, and the bark yields tannin.

* Scattered in broad-leaved forests and valleys on acidic, well-drained, yellow loess (pH = 5-5.5); 300-1100 m. Perhaps native in NW Zhejiang (Tianmu Shan); widely and long cultivated below 2000 m in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

生活型: 乔木

栽培植物: 栽培

特征: 落叶乔木 ;

生境: 栽培

用途: 我国特产植物。稀有用材树种,供雕刻、家具、建筑、 图板等用;又为庭 园观赏和行道树种;种子即白果,有小毒,供食用和药用,有润肺止咳、利小便等效;叶也可镇咳止喘、清热利湿,治咳嗽、哮喘、白带、白浊、夜尿;又可作农药杀虫剂

门中名: 种子植物门

亚门中名: 裸子植物亚门

中文别名: 白果


 

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