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Dinghushan | Family List | Euphorbiaceae | Croton

Croton tiglium L.

巴豆

Description from Flora of China

Alchornea vaniotii H. Léveillé; Croton birmanicus Müller Argoviensis; C. himalaicus D. G. Long; C. xiaopadou H. S. Kiu.

Treelets up to 7 m tall; indumentum of stellate hairs; young branches green, sparsely stellate-hairy, glabrous at maturity. Stipules subulate, 1.5-4 mm, caducous; petiole 2.5-6 cm, subglabrous; leaf blade ovate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, 5-15 × 2-7 cm, papery, glabrous or glabrescent, yellowish to brownish when dry, base cuneate or broadly so, rounded, rarely slightly cordate, with discoid glands, margins serrulate or subentire, apex acute or acuminate, sometimes long acuminate or caudate-acuminate; basal veins 3(-5), lateral veins 3 or 4. Racemes terminal, 8-20 cm; bracts subulate, ca. 2 mm. Male flowers: bud subglobose, sparsely stellate-hairy or glabrescent. Female flowers: sepals oblong-lanceolate, ca. 2.5 mm, glabrescent; ovary densely stellate-hairy; styles bipartite. Capsules ellipsoidal, oblong-ovoid, or subglobose, 1-2 × 1-2 cm, sparsely stellate-hairy or glabrescent. Seeds elliptic or oblong-ovate, 8-12 × 6-7 mm, gray-brown. Fl. Jan-Jul, fr. May-Sep.

The seed oil contains crotin, tiglic and crotonic acid, and crotonoside, and is very poisonous, being a drastic purgative and often causing pustular eruptions on the skin. The seeds are used to stupefy fish. The root and leaves are used as an external medicine for rheumatalgia and also as an insecticide.

The name "Croton tiglium var. xiaopadou" (Y. T. Chang & S. Z. Huang, Wuyi Sci. J. 2: 23. 1982) was not validly published because two gatherings were indicated as types (Vienna Code, Art. 37.2). The name was later validated, at species rank, by H. S. Kiu (J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 6: 103. 1998).

Montane sparse forests, limestone shrublands; 300-700 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam].

生活型: 乔木

栽培植物: 栽培

特征: 小乔木;3--5基出掌状叶脉,腺体着生在叶基部的边缘上,嫩叶有星芒状毛

花期: 4--6

果期: 6--7

生境: 生于白云自然林中及栽培

用途: 全株药用,有毒(尤其种子油有剧毒!)根、叶祛风、消肿止痛,治蛇伤、风湿骨痛、跌打损伤、疮毒及鸡瘟、牛胎衣不下等;种子泻下行水、杀虫解毒,治水肿、顽固便秘;茎、叶及种子又为良好土农药,作杀虫剂;种子油供工业用或作泻剂

门中名: 种子植物门

亚门中名: 被子植物亚门

纲中名: 双子叶植物纲

中文别名: 双眼龙


 

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