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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 14 | Convolvulaceae

13. Calystegia R. Brown, Prodr. 483. 1810. name conserved.

Morning glory [Greek calyx and stegos, covering, alluding to two large bracts enclosing calyx]

Richard K. Brummitt†

Perennials or subshrubs. Stems usually twining-climbing, sometimes ascending, decumbent, erect, procumbent, prostrate, or trailing, rarely almost absent, usually hairy, hairs not branched, glandular, or stellate, sometimes glabrate, glabrescent, or glabrous. Leaves petiolate; blade usually cordate, elliptic, linear, oblong, oblong-hastate, orbiculate, oval, ovate, reniform, tri­angular, or triangular-hastate, rarely palmately 7–9-lobed, (15–)20–130 mm, base usually lobed or truncate, sometimes cuneate, surfaces glabrate, glabrescent, glabrous, ± pilose, tomentose, tomentulose, or villous. Inflorescences usually axillary, rarely terminal, compound cymes, bracteate; peduncles 1(–4)-flowered. Flowers: sepals ± elliptic, lanceolate, lance-ovate, oblong, oblong-ovate, oval, or ovate, (5–)8–15(–25) mm; corolla usually white, sometimes cream, pink, purple, red, or yellow, campanulate to funnelform, (20–)25–60(–73)[–88] mm, limb entire or 5-lobed or -angled, rarely multilobed; ovary 1-locular, sometimes with partial septum; styles 1; stigma lobes 2, linear to oblong, apices blunt. Fruits capsular, ± globose, dehiscence irregular. Seeds (1–)2–4, pyramidal to subglobose or trigonous, glabrous, papillate, smooth, or reticulate. x = 12.

Species ca. 30 (20 in the flora): North America, Mexico, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Pacific Islands, Australia.

Species delimitation is problematic throughout Calystegia, with geographic and morphological intergradation between taxa, and often arbitrary limits have to be adopted to avoid impractically broad species. Hybridization is common where species overlap geographically. It is difficult to pinpoint any species which is not taxonomically subdivided and which does not intergrade or hybridize with others.

H. Hallier (1893) and W. H. Lewis and R. L. Oliver (1965) summarized arguments for treat­ing Calystegia and Convolvulus as distinct genera. In a molecular analysis, M. A. Carine et al. (2004) found Calystegia nested within Convolvulus.

1 Bracts (1–)2–10(–50) mm distant from sepals, margins entire, lobed, or toothed.   (2)
+ Bracts immediately subtending, less than 1 mm from, sepals, margins entire.   (11)
2 (1) Stems erect, sometimes intertwined; leaf blades usually linear to narrowly triangular, sometimes ovate, base not lobed or hastate-lobed and lobes ± linear, oblong, or trian­gular, 1-pointed   1 Calystegia longipes
+ Stems ascending, decumbent, procumbent, trailing, or twining-climbing; leaf blades oblong, oblong-ovate, orbiculate, ovate, broadly to narrowly triangular, triangular-hastate, or palmately 7–9-lobed, base usually lobed and lobes rounded or 1–3-pointed, base rarely cuneate or ± truncate.   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blades oblong, oblong-ovate, orbiculate, or ovate, base lobed and lobes rounded or base cuneate to ± truncate   2 Calystegia felix
+ Leaf blades usually broadly to narrowly triangular, ovate-triangular, or triangular-hastate (daggerlike), or palmately 7–9-lobed, sometimes ± reniform, base usually lobed and lobes rounded or 1–3-pointed, base rarely cuneate or ± truncate.   (4)
4 (3) Herbage glabrous.   (5)
+ Herbage usually hairy, at least near leaf blade sinus and/or tip of peduncle, sometimes glabrate or glabrescent.   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blades ± triangular to ovate-triangular; bracts linear, margins entire or proximally lobed or toothed   3 Calystegia purpurata
+ Leaf blades narrowly triangular-hastate; bracts elliptic to broadly elliptic-oblong, margins entire   4 Calystegia peirsonii (in part)
6 (4) Leaf blades palmately 7–9-lobed   5 Calystegia stebbinsii
+ Leaf blades not palmately lobed.   (7)
7 (6) Bract margins entire.   (8)
+ Bract margins proximally lobed or toothed.   (9)
8 (7) Leaf blades ± triangular-hastate, middle lobe ± lance-linear; bracts 1–2 mm distant from sepals, linear, 5–16(–20) × 0.5–1.5 mm   6 Calystegia vanzuukiae (in part)
+ Leaf blades ± triangular; bracts (1–)3–7 mm distant from sepals, linear to linear-oblong, 4–13(–18) × 1–4(–5) mm   7 Calystegia occidentalis (in part)
9 (7) Herbage tomentose to villous; leaf blades ± broadly to narrowly triangular, basal lobes 2(–3)-pointed   8 Calystegia malacophylla (in part)
+ Herbage glabrate or hairy; leaf blades narrowly triangular or triangular-hastate, basal lobes rounded or 1–2-pointed.   (10)
10 (9) Bracts 1–2 mm distant from sepals, linear, 5–16(–20) × 0.5–1.5 mm   6 Calystegia vanzuukiae (in part)
+ Bracts 2–12(–15) mm distant from sepals, lanceolate, linear, linear-oblong, oblanceolate, or narrowly to broadly triangular, 5–22(–30) × 2–4(–7) mm   7 Calystegia occidentalis (in part)
11 (1) Corollas horticultural doubles, limbs multilobed; stamens and ovaries absent   9 Calystegia pubescens
+ Corollas not doubles, limbs weakly 5-lobed, 5-angled, or entire; stamens and ovaries present.   (12)
12 (11) Bracts 1.5–3.5(–4) mm wide.   (13)
+ Bracts 4–30 mm wide.   (16)
13 (12) Herbage tomentellous, tomentose, or villous   10 Calystegia collina (in part)
+ Herbage glabrous or ± hairy, not tomentellous, tomentose, or villous.   (14)
14 (13) Leaf blades narrowly triangular-hastate, base lobed, lobes ± oblong to rhombic, 1-pointed   4 Calystegia peirsonii (in part)
+ Leaf blades rounded-deltate to triangular-hastate, base cuneate or lobed, lobes not oblong to rhombic and 1-pointed.   (15)
15 (14) Herbage glabrous; bract apices acute to obtuse   11 Calystegia atriplicifolia (in part)
+ Herbage sparsely hairy; bract apices acute   12 Calystegia subacaulis (in part)
16 (12) Perennials or subshrubs, rootstock woody   13 Calystegia macrostegia
+ Perennials, rhizomatous.   (17)
17 (16) Leaf blades ± reniform, ± fleshy; corollas pink   14 Calystegia soldanella
+ Leaf blades not reniform, not fleshy; corollas usually pink, cream, or white, rarely purple.   (18)
18 (17) Stems usually erect, procumbent, or twining-climbing, sometimes trailing or proximally erect and distally twining-climbing; mostly c, e North America.   (19)
+ Stems usually ascending-decumbent, sometimes procumbent, suberect, trailing, or proximally erect and distally weakly twining-climbing, or almost absent; mostly w North America (C. macounii plains and west).   (23)
19 (18) Leaf blades triangular to triangular-hastate, base lobed, lobes 2(–3)-pointed; corollas usually pink, sometimes purple or white, 21–32(–35) mm   15 Calystegia hederacea
+ Leaf blades ± cordate, elliptic, elliptic-ovate, linear, oblong, ovate, broadly to narrowly triangular, or triangular-hastate, base cuneate, rounded, or lobed, lobes obtuse, rounded, or 1–2-pointed; corollas pink or white, (20–)35–65(–70) mm.   (20)
20 (19) Stems erect   16 Calystegia spithamaea
+ Stems usually twining-climbing, sometimes trailing or proxi­mally erect and distally twining-climbing.   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blades elliptic-ovate, basal lobes obtuse or rounded, surfaces some­times whitish tomentose   17 Calystegia catesbeiana
+ Leaf blades ± cordate, linear, oblong, oblong-ovate, oval, ovate, triangular, or triangular-hastate, basal lobes usually 1–2-pointed, sometimes rounded or 1-pointed, surfaces not whitish.   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blade basal sinuses usually acute to rounded, sometimes quadrate, rarely closed; bracts proximally flat or keeled, not or scarcely saccate, margins not or scarcely enfolding sepals, apices acute to subobtuse or truncate   18 Calystegia sepium
+ Leaf blade basal sinuses ± quadrate to rounded; bracts proximally saccate, margins enfolding sepals, apices obtuse to truncate   19 Calystegia silvatica
23 (18) Herbage glabrous   11 Calystegia atriplicifolia (in part)
+ Herbage moderately or sparsely hairy, puberulent, tomentellous, tomentose, or villous.   (24)
24 (23) Herbage sparsely hairy, hairs appressed   12 Calystegia subacaulis (in part)
+ Herbage moderately or sparsely hairy, puberulent, tomentellous, tomentose, or villous, hairs not appressed.   (25)
25 (24) Leaf blade basal lobes ± rhombic, rounded; east of California   20 Calystegia macounii
+ Leaf blade basal lobes 1–3-pointed; California.   (26)
26 (25) Stems mostly to 60(–100) cm; leaves not in basal rosettes   8 Calystegia malacophylla (in part)
+ Stems to (2–)50 cm or almost absent; leaves usually in basal rosettes.   (27)
27 (26) Herbage tomentellous, tomentose, or villous; leaf blade margins ± undulate   10 Calystegia collina (in part)
+ Herbage moderately to sparsely hairy; leaf blade margins not notably undulate   12 Calystegia subacaulis (in part)

  • List of lower taxa


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