225. Ligularia Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. 1816: 198. 1816.
Ligularia [Latin, ligula, little tongue, and -aria, pertaining to or possession of; alluding to corollas of radiate heads]
Theodore M. Barkley†
Perennials, 15–150+ cm (glabrous or scattered-hairy, especially distally [arachno-tomentose]; roots fibrous). Stems usually 1, erect. Leaves basal and cauline; alternate; petiolate (petiole bases dilated, ± sheathing stems); blades (basal and proximal largest, cauline smaller distally) palmately [palmati-pinnately] nerved, orbiculate to reniform [elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, ovate], margins dentate [denticulate, serrate, dissected], faces glabrous or sparsely pilosulous (mostly on nerves) [glaucous; arachno-tomentose]. Heads radiate [discoid], in corymbiform [racemiform or spiciform] arrays. Calyculi 0 [1–2+ bractlets]. Involucres cylindric to campanulate, [3–]16–28 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, [5–]8–13+ in 1–2 series, erect, distinct (margins interlocking) [connate at bases], mostly oblong or lanceolate to linear, subequal, margins usually ± scarious (tips greenish or reddish, not blackened). Receptacles flat to convex, smooth, epaleate. Ray florets [0 or 1–7] 8–14+, pistillate, fertile; corollas (laminae prominent, showy) orange to orange-yellow or brick-red [yellow]. Disc florets [5–]12–100+, bisexual, fertile; corollas orange-yellow to orange, becoming brownish [yellow], tubes longer than cylindric throats, lobes 5, recurved, lance-linear; style branches: stigmatic areas continuous, apices truncate or rounded-truncate. Cypselae (stramineous to brownish) ± ellipsoid [cylindric or fusiform], 5[–10]-ribbed or -nerved, glabrous; pappi persistent (fragile), of 40–100+, reddish [sordid, brownish, purplish], barbellate to barbellulate bristles ([shorter than] longer than cypselae). x = 30.
Species 125+ (1 in the flora): introduced; temperate Eurasia.