52. Tipularia Nuttall, Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 195. 1818.
Crane-fly orchid [Latin tippula, crane-fly, alluding to the resemblance of the flowers to crane-flies]
Paul M. Catling & Charles J. Sheviak
Herbs, terrestrial. Roots 3–10, from bases of newer corms, spongy. Stems produced in summer, solitary, subapical, opposite leaf, arising from ovate, angular corms. Leaves produced in autumn, persisting over winter, withering in spring, solitary; blade broad, ovate, pleated. Inflorescences lax racemes. Flowers resupinate, bilaterally asymmetric; lip with long, free basal spur; column slightly arcuate; anther terminal, deciduous but retained on pollinaria for short time; pollinia 4, in 2 pairs, yellow, attached to elastic caudicle 1 mm with basal viscidium; stigma entire; rostellum a 2-fid flap enclosing viscidium. Fruits capsules, pendent, ovoid. Seeds 0.5–0.6 mm.
Species 3 (1 in the flora): temperate regions; 1 in e North America, 1 in the Himalayas, 1 in Japan.
Catling, P. M. and V. R. Catling. 1990. Anther cap retention in Tipularia discolor. Lindleyana 6: 113–116. Snow, A. A. and D. F. Whigham. 1989. Costs of flower and fruit production in Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Ecology 70: 1286–1293. Stoutamire, W. P. 1978. Pollination of Tipularia discolor, an orchid with modified symmetry. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 47: 413–415. Whigham, D. F. and M. McWethy. 1980. Studies on the pollination ecology of Tipularia discolor (Orchidaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 67: 550–555.