1. Neckera pennata Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond. 200. 1801.
Neckera oligocarpa Bruch
Plants 5-11 cm. Stems with branches absent or few, attenuate; paraphyllia few to absent. Stem leaves (central) oblong-ovate, undulate, 2-3(-5) × 1.2-1.5 mm; margins serrulate to entire proximally, serrulate at apex; apex acute to broadly acute; ecostate or costa double, short; alar cells irregularly short-quadrate; basal laminal cells rectangular, 50-60 × 7-10 µm; distal medial cells oblong-linear, (23-)42-54 × 2-4 µm; apical cells oblong-rhombic, (15-)30-36 × (2-)3-5 µm. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta 0.1 cm. Capsule immersed.
Base and trunks of trees, boulders, rock cliffs of conifer and deciduous forests to montane subalpine ecotones; moderate to high elevations (300-2600 m); Greenland; B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., Que., Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Colo., Conn., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; Europe; Asia; Pacific Islands (New Zealand); Australia.
Neckera pennata is recognized by its immersed sporophytes, undulate, acute to broadly acute leaves, and paraphyllia absent or scarce. The leaves have very few alar cells.