52. Solidago rugosa Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 8. Solidago no. 25. 1768.
Rough-stemmed or wrinkle-leaf goldenrod , verge d’or rugueuse
Aster rugosus (Miller) Kuntze
Plants 30–200 cm; rhizomes long-creeping, forming clones. Stems 1–50+, erect, glabrous or densely hispid to strigose. Leaves: basal withering by flowering; proximal cauline usually withering by flowering, sessile, blades elliptic to lanceolate, 68–104 × 20–25 mm, margins sharply serrate, apices acute to attenuate, abaxial faces usually hispido-strigose (at least on main nerves), nerves sometimes prominent, abaxial glabrate; mid to distal cauline sessile, blades lanceolate, elliptic or ovate, (15–)40–75(–90) × (6–)12–22(–32) mm, largest at midstem, somewhat reduced to much reduced distally, margins coarsely to finely serrate, ciliate, indument similar to proximal or denser. Heads 50–1500 , secund, in secund-pyramidal paniculiform arrays 7–36(–50) × 9–26 cm, compact to lax, branches divergent and recurved, longest 0.8–34 cm, leafy-bracteate. Peduncles 1–1.8 mm, sparsely to densely hispido-strigillose; bracteoles linear- lanceolate to ovate. Involucres narrowly campanulate, (2–)2.5–3.5(–4.5) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, strongly unequal, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute to obtuse. Ray florets (4–)6–8(–12); laminae (0.9–)1–1.6(–2.3) × 0.4–0.7 mm. Disc florets (2–)4–6(–8); corollas 2–3.5(–4.5) mm, lobes (0.5–)0.7–1(–1.3) mm. Cypselae (narrowly obconic) 0.9–1.5 mm, moderately strigillose; pappi 1.8–2.5 mm.
Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora): e North America.
Solidago rugosa is highly variable in size, array shape, and hairiness. It is similar to members of the S. canadensis complex; it differs in not having 3-nerved leaves. The species is divided into two subspecies and five varieties that can be difficult to distinguish.