4. Solidago rugosa Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Solidago no. 25. 1768.
多皱一枝黄花 duo zhou yi zhi huang hua
Herbs, perennial; rhizomes creeping, branched. Stems 30-50 cm tall (potentially to 100 cm), erect, simple, green, shortly hirsute. Leaves: lower cauline absent at anthesis, similar to mid or upper ones but larger; mid to upper cauline numerous, lanceolate, 4.5-7 cm, tapering at both ends, margin of lower cauline sharply serrate, lateral veins multiple, prominent (not trinerved), apex acuminate; upper cauline similar, ± reduced, margin sometimes entire. Capitula very small, in secund, pyramidal, paniculiform synflorescences, branches spreading to curved downward, lower branches longest, capitula borne on one side, sometimes a few lower branches much elongated. Involucre 3-4 mm; phyllaries linear-lanceolate, apex acute to obtuse. Florets golden yellow; ray florets 3-8, lamina 1.6-1.9 mm; disk florets 3-6, 2.9-3.3 mm, lobes 0.8-1.1 mm. Pappus inner (longest) bristles not obviously clavate. Fl. Aug-Sep.
Forest margins. Introduced in Jiangxi [native to E North America].
The Chinese plants belong to Solidago rugosa var. rugosa.