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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 28 | Orthotrichaceae | Orthotrichum

6. Orthotrichum bolanderi Sullivant, Icon. Musc. suppl. 64, plate 46. 1874.

Plants 0.5-4 cm, . Stem leaves stiff, erect-appressed, rarely incurved when dry, lanceolate, 2-3.5 mm; margins plane, entire; apex narrowly obtuse to acute; basal laminal cells elongate, walls thick, ± nodose; distal cells 7-11µm, 2-stratose, papillae 2-4 per cell, conic, sometimes large. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition gonioautoicous. Seta 1 mm. Capsule emergent, ovate-oblong when mature, ovate-cylindric when old, 1.4-2 mm, slightly 8-ribbed in distal 1/3 of capsule; stomata superficial; peristome double; prostome present, rudimentary; exostome teeth 8, erect, sometimes reflexed when old and dry, papillose to coarsely papillose-striate; endostome segments 8, occasionally rudimentary, of 2 rows of cells, papillose. Calyptra oblong-conic, smooth, hairy, hairs papillose. Spores 17-23 µm. Rock, especially sandstone; low to high elevation (100-2000 m); Calif., Wash.; Mexico; Central America (Guatemala).

Orthotrichum is the only species with superficial stomata that has 2-stratose distal laminal cells. The plants have leaves with subsheathing bases, ovoid-cylindric capsules with long wrinkled necks, and reflexed-recurved exostome teeth. When dry, the leaves are stiffly erect-appressed; they lie flat on a microscope slide when wet.


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