4. Syntrichia latifolia (Bruch ex Hartman) Huebener, Muscol. Germ. 342. 1833.
Tortula latifolia Bruch ex Hartman, Handb. Skand. Fl. ed. 2, 322. 1832
Stems 4-12 mm. Leaves infolded, twisted, and slightly contorted when dry, erect-spreading when moist, narrowly or broadly spatulate, 1.8-2.8 × 0.6-0.8 mm; margins revolute in the proximal 1/2, entire; apices obtuse; costa ending a few cells before the apex or percurrent, brown, smooth; basal cells abruptly differentiated, narrower toward the margins; distal cells rounded, polygonal, or quadrate, 12-18 µm, with 4-6 papillae per cell. Specialized asexual reproduction by gemmae on the adaxial or occasionally the abaxial leaf surface of leaves, ovoid and rounded, 25-45 µm in diameter, green to brown, multicellular. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red, 6 mm. Capsule red, 3 mm, straight, with a distinct neck; operculum 1.5-2mm, red; peristome 1 mm, basal membrane 1/2-2/3 the total length, red. Spores 10-15 µm, papillose.
Bark of trees, rarely on rocks; low to high elevations; B.C.; Ariz., Calif., Oreg., Wash.; Europe.