6. Brachytheciastrum velutinum (Hedwig) Ignatov & Huttunen, Arctoa. 11: 260. 2003.
Hypnum velutinum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 272. 1801
Plants small, in loose or moderately dense tufts, green to yellowish or brownish. Stems to 4(-5) cm, creeping or ascending and erect, terete- to subcomplanate-foliate, not julaceous, regularly or irregularly pinnate, branches to 4(-6) mm, terete- or subcomplanate-foliate. Stem leaves erect to erect-spreading, densely to loosely arranged, falcate to circinate, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, not plicate or with 2 submarginal plicae, rarely with additional indistinct plicae, 1-1.8 × (0.1-)0.2-0.5(-0.6) mm; margins plane or recurved at base, serrate, serrulate, or subentire; apex gradually long-acuminate, acumen weakly spreading; costa to 40-70% leaf length, , terminal spine present; alar cells subquadrate to short-rectangular, 8-12 × 10-15µm, region small, of 4-8 × 4-6 cells, distinctly delimited; laminal cells linear, 45-140 × 4-7 µm; basal cells short-rectangular, 8-10 µm wide, region in 1 or 2 indistinctly delimited rows. Seta red-brown, 0.8-1.5 cm, smooth, rough, or rough proximally and smooth near capsule. Capsule horizontal, brown, dark red-brown with age, elongate, to 1.5 mm; endostome basal membrane 1/3-1/2 endostome length, cilia as long as segments. Spores 10-14(-15) µm.
Varieties 2 (2 in the flora): North America, Eurasia, n Africa, Atlantic Islands.
Plants of Brachytheciastrum velutinum have less strongly plicate branch leaves than stem leaves.