10. Viola canadensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 936. 1753.
Plants perennial, caulescent, not stoloniferous, 3–46(–60) cm, with branching rhizomes forming colonies or not. Stems 1–3(4), usually erect to ascending, glabrous or puberulent, from fleshy or subligneous rhizome. Leaves basal and cauline; basal: 1–5; stipules ± oblong, ovate, or lanceolate, margins entire, sometimes glandular, apex acuminate to cuspidate; petiole 1.1–23 cm, glabrous or puberulent; blade ovate to broadly ovate or ovate-reniform, 0.7–12.4 × 0.9–11.1(–12.3) cm, base cordate, subcordate, or truncate, margins crenate, crenulate, or serrulate, ciliate (sometimes only on proximal 1/2) or eciliate, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent (often only on veins); cauline similar to basal except: stipules also deltate, margins also erose or laciniate, apex acute, long-acuminate to cuspidate, or ± truncate, occasionally 2- or 3-fid; petiole 0.1–6.9(–15.2) cm; blade ovate to deltate, 1.2–7.7 × 0.8–7.8 cm, base cordate to truncate, margins crenate or crenulate to ± serrulate. Peduncles 1–6.1 cm, glabrate to puberulent, sometimes glabrous below bracteoles. Flowers: sepals lanceolate, margins usually eciliate, auricles 0.5–1.3 mm; petals white adaxially, upper 2 and lower 3 tinged soft reddish violet abaxially, rarely white on both surfaces, all petals usually with yellow patch basally, lower 3 usually purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest 5.5–20 mm, spur white, gibbous, 1–2 mm; style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary or absent. Capsules ovoid to ellipsoid, 2.5–10 mm, sometimes muriculate, glabrous or puberulent. Seeds brown to dark brown or purplish black, 1.5–2.5 mm.
Varieties 3 (3 in the flora): North America.