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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Myrsinaceae

3. Ardisia Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 3: 48. 1788.

紫金牛属 zi jin niu shu

Trees, shrubs, suffrutescent [or rarely herbs]. Leaves alternate or pseudoverticillate, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Inflorescences paniculate, cymose, corymbose, or umbellate, rarely racemose. Flowers bisexual, often punctate, 5- or rarely 4-merous. Calyx campanulate or cupular; sepals free or barely united at base, imbricate or quincuncial, usually punctate or punctate-lineate. Corolla campanulate, often punctate; lobes united at base, overlapping to right or very rarely to left, imbricate, or quincuncial, often conical in bud. Stamens attached at base or middle of corolla tube; filaments very short, broad at base; anthers dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores. Ovary ovoid or subglobose, as long as or longer than petals; ovules 3 to many. Style base persistent; stigma minute, apiculate. Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded, punctate, sometimes longitudinally ribbed, with somewhat fleshy exocarp and crusty or slightly bony endocarp. Seeds covered by membranous remnants of placenta.

About 400-500 species: primarily tropical E and SE Asia, Americas, Australia, and Pacific Islands; 65 species in China.

1 Suffrutescent herbs or subwoody shrubs, if woody then mostly less than 1.5 tall, with creeping rhizomes, stolons, or tubers.   (2)
+ Shrubs or trees, mostly over 1 m, without creeping rhizomes or stolons.   (31)
2 (1) Leaf blade margin serrate or pectinate-dentate.   (3)
+ Leaf blade margin entire, crenate, or undulate.   (16)
3 (2) Leaf blade margin pectinate-dentate.   (4)
+ Leaf blade margin roughly to finely serrate.   (10)
4 (3) Leaf blade papery, ovate or elliptic, 6-16 cm, base broadly rounded to subcordate, slightly asymmetric.   (5)
+ Leaf blade membranous 16-50 cm, base cuneate or truncate, symmetric.   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blade bullate adaxially, veins densely villous-tomentose abaxially; inflorescences ca. 3 cm   36 Ardisia pubivenula
+ Leaf blade smooth adaxially, veins minutely villous abaxially; inflorescences 5-7 cm   37 Ardisia replicata
6 (4) Cataphylls absent; leaf secondary veins perpendicular from midrib to margin.   (7)
+ Cataphylls present; leaf secondary veins arcuate, curving distally from midrib to margin.   (8)
7 (6) Leaf blade oblanceolate, tomentose abaxially along veins, base truncate; petiole 4-6 cm   38 Ardisia scalarinervis
+ Leaf blade broadly elliptic, tomentose abaxially throughout, base broadly rounded; petiole (6-)6.5-8.5 cm   39 Ardisia pingbienensis
8 (6) Inflorescences racemose panicles; flowers umbellate; branchlets and midrib tomentose with simple, stramineous trichomes   42 Ardisia ramondiiformis
+ Inflorescences bipinnate panicles; flowers corymbose; branchlets and midrib tomentose with reddish, elongated, 2-celled capitate trichomes.   (9)
9 (8) Plant subsucculent; leaf blade margin somewhat revolute; inflorescences columnar, not pyramidal   40 Ardisia dasyrhizomatica
+ Plant woody; leaf blade margin flat; inflorescences pyramidal   41 Ardisia gigantifolia
10 (3) Inflorescences paniculate; petiole winged   43 Ardisia balansana
+ Inflorescences umbellate; petiole not winged.   (11)
11 (10) Leaf blade 15-22 cm   44 Ardisia purpureovillosa
+ Leaf blade 2.5-10 cm.   (12)
12 (11) Leaves alternate, base of blade cordate   49 Ardisia maclurei
+ Leaves opposite, whorled, or nearly so; base of blade cuneate, obtuse, or rounded.   (13)
13 (12) Sepals ovate or triangular-ovate, puberulent, tomentose, or ciliate; bracts 1-2 mm.   (14)
+ Sepals linear- to subulate-lanceolate, villous or pilose; bracts 3-5 mm.   (15)
14 (13) Pedicel puberulent, ca. 5 mm; petiole canaliculate, 10-20 mm   45 Ardisia ordinata
+ Pedicel strigose, 7-10 mm; petiole not canaliculate, 6-10 mm   46 Ardisia japonica
15 (13) Leaf blade elliptic or obovate, 2.5-6 cm; pedicel ca. 6 mm; flowers (3-)4 mm; fruit punctate   47 Ardisia pusilla
+ Leaf blade ovate to lanceolate-elliptic or oblanceolate, 5-10 cm; pedicel 7-10 mm; flowers 4-5(-6) mm; fruit not punctate   48 Ardisia faberi
16 (2) Leaves and branchlets glandular villous-tomentose or glandular puberulent.   (17)
+ Leaves and branchlets glandular papillose, scaly, or glabrous.   (22)
17 (16) Shrubs; leaf blade apex subacuminate to long acuminate, margin glabrous.   (18)
+ Herbs; leaf blade apex rounded to acute; margin long glandular villous-tomentose.   (19)
18 (17) Leaf blade margin crenate; branchlets long glandular villous   50 Ardisia villosa
+ Leaf blade margin entire; branchlets reddish glandular puberulent   51 Ardisia brevicaulis
19 (17) Petiole 0.2-0.4 cm; sepals glabrous; leaf blade apex rounded.   (20)
+ Petiole 2-4 cm; sepals long glandular villous; leaf blade apex acute.   (21)
20 (19) Calyx lobe margin glandular ciliate   52 Ardisia primulifolia
+ Calyx lobe margin glabrous   53 Ardisia omissa
21 (19) Leaf blade base truncate to broadly rounded, adaxial surface hispid   54 Ardisia verbascifolia
+ Leaf blade base acute, adaxial surface strigose and mamillate   55 Ardisia mamillata
22 (16) Leaf blade 2-6 cm.   (23)
+ Leaf blade 6.5-20 cm.   (27)
23 (22) Leaf blade margin crenulate.   (24)
+ Leaf blade margin minutely serrulate or entire.   (25)
24 (23) Leaf blade lanceolate, glossy above; branchlets and petioles densely and minutely reddish glandular papillose   56 Ardisia alyxiifolia
+ Leaf blade obovate, dull above; branchlets and petioles reddish brown scaly   57 Ardisia chinensis
25 (23) Leaf blade margin entire; branchlets brown scaly apically   58 Ardisia fordii
+ Leaf blade margin minutely serrulate; branchlets minutely reddish puberulent.   (26)
26 (25) Leaf blade base truncate to subcordate   59 Ardisia violacea
+ Leaf blade base cuneate   60 Ardisia sinoaustralis
27 (22) Branchlets reddish brown scaly; leaf blade margin without marginal nitrogen-fixing nodules   61 Ardisia argenticaulis
+ Branchlets glandular papillate; leaf blade margin with conspicuous black nitrogen fixing nodules.   (28)
28 (27) Leaf blade apex caudate; branchlets reddish glandular papillose; petiole 0.3-0.6 cm.   (29)
+ Leaf blade apex acute to acuminate; branchlets minutely rusty glandular papillose; petiole 0.8-2 cm.   (30)
29 (28) Leaf blade membranous, base obtuse to rounded, abaxially glaucous, inconspicuously pellucid punctate, sparsely reddish puberulent   62 Ardisia caudata
+ Leaf blade papery, base acutish to attenuate, abaxially dull, densely black punctate, sparsely reddish papillose   63 Ardisia pedalis
30 (28) Leaf blade membranous; petals 4-5 mm, apex acute; plants with creeping rhizomes   64 Ardisia crispa
+ Leaf blade papery to subleathery; petals 7-8 mm, apex acuminate; plants with tubers   65 Ardisia carnosicaulis
31 (1) Inflorescences strictly axillary or axillary and terminal.   (32)
+ Inflorescences terminal or subterminal.   (42)
32 (31) Branchlets and inflorescence rachis reddish tomentose or puberulent.   (33)
+ Branchlets and inflorescence rachis glabrous, minutely red papillate, or sparsely brown scaly.   (35)
33 (32) Inflorescences cymose, ca. 1 cm; branchlets reddish puberulent   3 Ardisia aberrans
+ Inflorescences paniculate, 7-10 cm; branchlets reddish tomentose.   (34)
34 (33) Inflorescence branches umbellate, rarely cymose; leaf blade margin entire; petiole 0.3-0.5 cm   1 Ardisia nigropilosa
+ Inflorescence branches racemose; leaf blade margin subentire to crenulate; petiole 1.5-2.5 cm   2 Ardisia baotingensis
35 (32) Branchlets and inflorescence rachis scaly.   (36)
+ Branchlets and inflorescence rachis glabrous or sparsely and minutely red glandular papillate.   (38)
36 (35) Leaf blade membranous; perianth membranous   6 Ardisia quinquegona
+ Leaf blade leathery; perianth papery.   (37)
37 (36) Leaf blade glossy adaxially, apex long acuminate, acumen 1-2 cm; secondary veins numerous, fine; calyx lobes broadly ovate to suborbicular   4 Ardisia waitakii
+ Leaf blade dull adaxially, apex acute; secondary veins 14-25 pairs; calyx lobes narrowly triangular   5 Ardisia sieboldii
38 (35) Petiole canaliculate; flowers in corymbs or racemes.   (39)
+ Petiole marginate; flowers in umbels.   (40)
39 (38) Leaf blade elliptic or oblanceolate, conspicuously black punctate-lineate abaxially, not prominently black punctate adaxially   10 Ardisia solanacea
+ Leaf blade linear or narrowly lanceolate, black punctate abaxially, prominently black punctate adaxially   11 Ardisia filiformis
40 (38) Sepals rugose basally; leaf blade margin revolute   7 Ardisia elliptica
+ Sepals smooth or verruculose basally; leaf blade margin flat.   (41)
41 (40) Sepals verruculose basally, margin hyaline, apex rounded to emarginate; leaf blade base acute; petals glabrous adaxially at base   8 Ardisia garrettii
+ Sepals smooth basally, margin opaque, apex broadly acute; leaf blade base cuneate; petals red glandular papillate adaxially at base   9 Ardisia brunnescens
42 (31) Leaf blade margin crenulate, serrate, or dentate, if subentire then with large vascularized nodules.   (43)
+ Leaf blade margin subentire, undulate, or entire, without vascularized nodules.   (54)
43 (42) Branchlets, abaxial leaf surface, and inflorescence rachis glabrous or rusty scaly.   (44)
+ Branchlets and inflorescence rachis sparsely glandular papillose-puberulent and early glabrescent, or strigose.   (47)
44 (43) Branchlets, abaxial leaf surface, and inflorescence rachis rusty scaly; leaf blade membranous or papery, densely black punctate and punctate-lineate or inconspicuously pellucid punctate.   (45)
+ Branchlets, abaxial leaf surface, and inflorescences glabrous; leaf blade leathery, not punctate.   (46)
45 (44) Leaf blade membranous, densely and prominently black punctate and punctate-lineate; tertiary veins not conspicuous   32 Ardisia shweliensis
+ Leaf blade papery, inconspicuously pellucid punctate; tertiary veins prominently raised abaxially   33 Ardisia malipoensis
46 (44) Inflorescences corymbose panicles of umbels; sepals lanceolate; petiole 10-13 mm   34 Ardisia hanceana
+ Inflorescences simple or compound umbels; sepals broadly ovate to suborbicular; petiole 0.3-0.5 mm   35 Ardisia crassinervosa
47 (43) Inflorescences simple umbels.   (48)
+ Inflorescences panicles of corymbs, umbels, or cymes.   (50)
48 (47) Leaf blade margin sharply serrate; sepals as wide as or wider than long; petals glabrous within   24 Ardisia cornudentata
+ Leaf blade margin undulate, or crenulate, rarely distantly serrulate; sepals longer than wide; petals yellow glandular granulose adaxially at base.   (49)
49 (48) Abaxial leaf surface, branchlets, and inflorescence rachis densely and minutely reddish puberulent; sepals papery, margin sparsely glandular ciliolate   25 Ardisia lindleyana
+ Abaxial leaf surface glabrous, branchlet and inflorescences rachis minutely reddish glandular papillate, early glabrescent; sepals membranous, margin glabrous   26 Ardisia crenata
50 (47) Panicles cymose or compound umbels; leaf blade apex acute or subacuminate.   (51)
+ Panicles corymbose; leaf blade apex caudate-acuminate.   (52)
51 (50) Leaf blade papery, dull, densely black punctate, sparsely glandular papillate abaxially; inflorescences compound umbels   30 Ardisia virens
+ Leaf blade leathery, glossy, inconspicuously pellucid punctate, with reddish bifurcate trichomes abaxially; inflorescences compound cymes   31 Ardisia alutacea
52 (50) Leaf blade membranous; inflorescences compound corymbs   27 Ardisia conspersa
+ Leaf blade subleathery to leathery; inflorescences corymbs of umbels.   (53)
53 (52) Perianth membranous, hyaline, essentially epunctate; sepals and petals long attenuate   28 Ardisia merrillii
+ Perianth papery, densely black punctate; sepals obtuse, petals acute   29 Ardisia corymbifera
54 (42) Inflorescences umbellate, terminal on modified lateral branchlets.   (55)
+ Inflorescences pyramidal paniculate, terminal and/or subterminal on main branchlet axis.   (60)
55 (54) Leaf blade linear or linear-lanceolate; branchlets 1.5-2.5(3.5) mm in diam.   (56)
+ Leaf blade elliptic, broadly oblanceolate or obovate; branchlets (3.5-) 4-5 mm in diam.   (57)
56 (55) Leaf blade leathery, densely and prominently black punctate and punctate-lineate; sepals elliptic   22 Ardisia ensifolia
+ Leaf balde papery, inconspicuously red punctate; sepals deltate   23 Ardisia hypargyrea
57 (55) Branchlets red puberulent; petiole up to 1 cm, leaf blade leathery or subleathery, dull adaxially, pale abaxially.   (58)
+ Branchlets glabrous; petiole 1-4 cm; leaf blade membranous, glossy adaxially.   (59)
58 (57) Leaf blade obscurely pellucid punctate; sepals ovate, acute apically, 1.5-2 mm, inconspicuously red punctate medially, margin opaque, erose, densely red glandular ciliate; peduncle 0.5-1.2 cm   18 Ardisia porifera
+ Leaf blade prominently black punctate; sepals suborbicular, broadly rounded and notched apically, 4-6 mm, densely black punctate medially, margin hyaline, irregular, with a few translucent glandular cilia; peduncle 1.3-2.5 cm   19 Ardisia perreticulata
59 (57) Leaf blade densely and prominently red punctate, margin entire; petiole 1-2 cm   20 Ardisia olivacea
+ Leaf blade densely and prominently black punctate and punctate-lineate, margin roughly crenate; petiole 3-4 cm   21 Ardisia hokouensis
60 (54) Leaf blade leathery, thin leathery, or cartilaginous; branchlets 5-7 mm in diam.   (61)
+ Leaves membranous to papery; branchlets 2-3 mm in diam.   (63)
61 (60) Leaf blade thin leathery, smooth; sepals ovate   14 Ardisia obtusa
+ Leaf blade cartilaginous or leathery, scrobiculate; sepals lanceolate.   (62)
62 (61) Leaf blade cartilaginous; inflorescences and branchlets minutely scaly   12 Ardisia densilepidotula
+ Leaf blade leathery; inflorescences and branchlets glabrous   13 Ardisia humilis
63 (60) Flowers in corymbs; pedicel erect; inflorescence rachis straight.   15 Ardisia thyrsiflora
+ Flowers in umbels; pedicel recurved; inflorescence rachis geniculate.   (64)
64 (63) Leaf blade bullate, elliptic to lanceolate; inflorescence rachis and branchlets reddish scaly and glandular papillate   16 Ardisia retroflexa
+ Leaf blade smooth, obovate to oblanceolate; inflorescence rachis and branchlets reddish stellate and dendroid tomentose   17 Ardisia curvula

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