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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Buxaceae

1. Buxus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 983. 1753.

黄杨属 huang yang shu

Shrubs or small trees, 0.15-6 m tall, evergreen, monoecious. Young branches tetragonous. Leaves opposite, shortly petiolate, leathery or thinly leathery, often shining, margin entire, venation pinnate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose, spicate, or converted into capitate cluster, bracteate; female flower solitary, apical, male flowers several, basal. Flowers small, unisexual. Male flowers: tepals 4; stamens 4; central pistillode present. Female flowers: tepals 5 or 6; carpels 3; ovary 3-locular; styles 3, free; stigma often decurrent; interstylar nectaries or nectariferous tissue present; ovules 2 per locule, pendent, anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellar; micropyle formed by inner integument, rudimentary aril. Fruit a dry capsule, globose or ovoid, usually glabrous, loculicidal, splitting into 3 valves; styles persistent. Seeds 2 per locule, oblong; testa black, shining; endosperm fleshy; cotyledons oblong.

About 100 species: Africa, America, Asia, Europe; 17 species (15 endemic) in China.

The following taxa have been described or recorded from Taiwan but are not treated here because we were unable to examine any material:

Buxus liukiuensis (Makino) Makino (Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 179. 1902; B. sempervirens Linnaeus var. liukiuensis Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 9: 279. 1895; B. microphylla Siebold & Zuccarini var. liukiuensis (Makino) S. S. Ying). This taxon was recorded from Taiwan by Yang and Lu (Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 3: 666-668. 1993), who erroneously treated it as endemic (the type is from Ishigaki-jima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan) and included in its synonymy B. liukiuensis var. longipedicellata Hatusima (J. Dept. Agric. Kyushu Imp. Univ. 6: 293. 1942), which was described from "Syusyu Nanto" (Shuishe, Nantou), Taiwan.

Buxus microphylla Siebold & Zuccarini var. tarokoensis S. Y. Lu & Yuen P. Yang (Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 3: 668. 1993). This taxon was described from an elevation of 1800 m in the Taroko gorge, Hualian, Taiwan.


1 Female flowers: style 2-3 × longer than ovary   (2)
+ Female flowers: style shorter than, equaling, or slightly longer than ovary   (7)
       
2 (1) Inflorescences 1-1.5 cm; bracts many, densely imbricate.   1 B. henryi
+ Inflorescences shorter than 1 cm; bracts sparsely arranged   (3)
       
3 (2) Lateral veins parallel, obscure.   2 B. pubiramea
+ Lateral veins parallel, visible on both surfaces in dried state   (4)
       
4 (3) Leaves broadly ovate or elliptic, base usually rounded.   3 B. latistyla
+ Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, narrowly lanceolate, or oblanceolate   (5)
       
5 (4) Some leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 8.5-12 × 3-3.8 cm.   4 B. hainanensis
+ Most leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, less than 7 cm, ca. 2 cm in diam   (6)
       
6 (5) Leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 3-7 × ca. 1.2 cm; style narrow and elongate at apex, recurved; branchlets sparsely pubescent or glabrescent.   5 B. myrica
+ Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, 2-3.5 × 0.7-1 cm; style shorter and wider at apex, erect; branchlets pubescent.   6 B. austroyunnanensis
       
7 (1) Sterile pistil not exceeding 1/2 of tepal in length (B. linearifolia sterile pistil up to 2/3 of tepal in length)   (8)
+ Sterile pistil equaling or exceeding sepals in length (rarely pistil ca. 2/3 of sepals in length, but then leaf not linear)   (15)
       
8 (7) Leaves larger, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, rarely lanceolate, (4-)6-8 cm.   7 B. megistophylla
+ Leaves small and narrow   (9)
       
9 (8) Leaves ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 3-6 × 1.5-2.5 cm; branchlets pubescent   (10)
+ Leaves spatulate, lanceolate, spatulate to linear, or obovate, elliptic, or oblong, less than 3(-4) cm and ca. 1 cm in diam.; branchlets pubescent or glabrous   (11)
       
10 (9) Leaves velutinous on both surfaces or glabrescent, lateral veins obscure; style and ovary equal in length; capsule glabrous.   8 B. mollicula
+ Leaves glabrous, lateral veins visible adaxially; style ± shorter than ovary; capsule velutinous.   9 B. hebecarpa
       
11 (9) Leaves elliptic or oblong, lateral veins obscure adaxially, rugulose in dried state.   10 B. rugulosa
+ Leaves more varied in shape, lateral veins visible adaxially, not rugulose in dried state   (12)
       
12 (11) Branchlets densely pubescent; leaves narrowly obovate, oblong, or elliptic-oblong, 1-2 × 0.4-0.8 cm.   11 B. stenophylla
+ Branchlets glabrous or pubescent; leaves narrowly oblong, narrowly oblanceolate, spatulate, or linear   (13)
       
13 (12) Ovary hirtellous; male flowers sessile; leaf blade lateral veins and midrib in 45° angles.   12 B. cephalantha
+ Ovary glabrous; male flowers pedicellate; leaf blade lateral veins and midrib in 30°-35° angles   (14)
       
14 (13) Leaves spatulate or narrowly oblong, 2-3.5(-4) × 0.5-0.8(-0.9) cm; sterile pistil ca. 1/2 of sepal in length.   13 B. harlandii
+ Leaves linear, rarely linear-lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 × 0.3-0.5 cm; sterile pistil ca. 2/3 of sepal in length.   14 B. linearifolia
       
15 (7) Leaves spatulate or obovate, 2-4 × 0.8-1.8 cm, midrib and lateral veins distinctly prominent.   15 B. bodinieri
+ Leaves many and varied in shape, lateral veins obscure or visible adaxially   (16)
       
16 (15) Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, 1-1.6 × 0.4-0.6 cm, lateral veins obscure and not rugulose on either surface; male flowers shortly pedicellate.   16 B. ichangensis
+ Leaves broadly elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 1.5-3.5 × 0.8-2 cm, lateral veins visible or not and rugulose adaxially; male flowers sessile.   17 B. sinica

  • List of lower taxa


     

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