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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Polygonaceae

8. Calligonum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 530. 1753.

沙拐枣属 sha guai zao shu

Bao Bojian (包伯坚); Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina

Shrubs or subshrubs, much branched; woody branches without spines; herbaceous branchlets of current year with leaves and flowers. Leaves simple, opposite, nearly sessile, linear or scale-like, united with ocrea at base or free; ocrea membranous. Inflorescence axillary. Pedicel slender, jointed. Flowers bisexual. Perianth persistent, 5-parted, not accrescent in fruit. Stamens 12-18; filaments connate at base. Ovary tetragonous. Styles 4, short; stigmas capitate. Achenes trigonous, ellipsoid or oblong-ovoid, woody; ribs with wings or bristles, rarely overgrowing a thin bladderlike membrane on surface of reduced wings or bristles.

About 35 species: N Africa, Asia, S Europe; 23 species (eight endemic) in China.

The reader can refer to Borodina (Rast. Tsentral. Azii 9: 122–130. 1989) for taxa in adjacent Central Asian countries.

1 Fruit with wings or bristles membranous-saccate.   1 C. calliphysa
+ Fruit with wings or bristles not membranous-saccate.   (2)
2 (1) Fruit with wings along ribs; not with bristles; wings entire.   (3)
+ Fruit with bristles on ribs or narrow wings with bristles at margin.   (5)
3 (2) Old branches light gray or yellow; wings nearly membranous, softer.   2 C. leucocladum
+ Old branches dark in color, gray-brown, purple-brown, or dark red; wings not membranous.   (4)
4 (3) Old branches gray-brown; wings nearly membranous; perianth white.   3 C. aphyllum
+ Old branches dark red or purple-brown; wings subleathery; perianth pink or red.   4 C. rubicundum
5 (2) Fruit narrowly winged with bristles; bristles flat at base.   (6)
+ Fruit not winged, with bristles on ribs, often not flat at base.   (10)
6 (5) Wings submembranous, entire; bristles soft, simple or forked at tips, slender, setose.   5 C. cordatum
+ Wings stiffly subleathery, margin narrowing to bristles; bristles stiff, forked at tips, thick.   (7)
7 (6) Fruit globose or subglobose, densely bristly; achenes coniform.   6 C. densum
+ Fruit ovoid or subglobose, sparsely bristly; achenes ellipsoid, ovoid, or oblong.   (8)
8 (7) Fruit less than 1.3 cm in diam.; achenes with bristles and wings at base of ribs, unarmed at apex; bristles ca. as long as or shorter than width of achenes; perianth spreading in fruit.   8 C. squarrosum
+ Fruit more than 1.5 cm in diam.; achenes with bristles and wings on entire rib; ca. as long as or longer than width of achenes; perianth reflexed in fruit.   (9)
9 (8) Fruit dark brown, subglobose; wings 1-2 mm wide.   7 C. colubrinum
+ Fruit yellow or yellowish brown, rarely red-brown, broadly ovoid; wings 2-3 mm wide.   9 C. klementzii
10 (5) Fruit 1.5-3 cm in diam.   (11)
+ Fruit less than 1.5 cm in diam.   (13)
11 (10) Fruit globose or subglobose, bristles dense.   20 C. caput-medusae
+ Fruit ovoid or broadly ovoid, bristles sparse.   (12)
12 (11) Fruit broadly ovoid; achenes ovoid, with 2 or 3 rows of bristles per rib.   15 C. alashanicum
+ Fruit ovoid; achenes ellipsoid, with 2 rows of bristles per rib.   19 C. arborescens
13 (10) Bristles slender, hair-shaped, breakable or deciduous; fruit ca. 1 mm in diam.   (14)
+ Bristles thick, spiniform; fruit ca. 15 mm in diam.   (16)
14 (13) Bristles in 1 row; achenes coiled.   13 C. pumilum
+ Bristles in 2 or 3 rows; achenes not coiled.   (15)
15 (14) Fruit broadly ellipsoid; perianth ovate, spreading in fruit; pedicel 1-2 mm, jointed below.   10 C. mongolicum
+ Fruit subglobose; perianth broadly elliptic, reflexed in fruit; pedicel 2-4 mm, jointed at middle.   18 C. jeminaicum
16 (13) Bristles in 1 row per rib.   (17)
+ Bristles in 2 or 3 rows per rib.   (18)
17 (16) Fruit ellipsoid, less than 1 mm in diam.; bristles shorter than width of achenes, branched from middle; pedicel 1-2 mm, jointed near base.   23 C. yengisaricum
+ Fruit broadly ovoid, more than 15 mm in diam.; bristles longer than width of achenes, branched from upper portion; pedicel 3-4 mm, jointed below middle.   22 C. korlaense
18 (16) Bristles in 3 rows per rib.   (19)
+ Bristles in 2 rows per rib.   (20)
19 (18) Fruit subglobose, broadly ellipsoid, or ellipsoid; achenes ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid; pedicel jointed at middle.   12 C. chinense
+ Fruit broadly ovoid or ovoid; achenes ovoid or oblong; pedicel jointed below middle.   16 C. trifarium
20 (18) Achenes with long beak; ribs often not prominent; bristles sparse, not enlarged at base, soft.   17 C. ebinuricum
+ Achenes without long beak; ribs prominent; bristles dense, enlarged at base, stiff.   (21)
21 (20) Achenes oblong, not or slightly coiled; bristles in 2 rows at margin of rib.   11 C. gobicum
+ Achenes broadly ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, usually coiled; bristles in 2 rows at middle of rib.   (22)
22 (21) Bristles slender, breakable; flowers dense.   14 C. zaidamense
+ Bristles thick, stiff; flowers sparse.   21 C. roborowskii

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