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3. Chamerion (Rafinesque) Rafinesque ex Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 7: 85. 1972.

柳兰属 liu lan shu

Authors: Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch & Peter H. Raven

Chamerion angustifolium

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Epilobium subg. Chamerion Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 266. 1818.

Herbs perennial, erect, usually clumped, with shoots from woody caudex or spreading lateral roots. Stems simple or rarely branched, pubescent to subglabrous, hairs always eglandular. Leaves spirally arranged, rarely subopposite or subverticillate, subleathery, basal ones sessile, upper ones usually petiolate; stipules absent; bracteoles absent. Inflorescence a simple raceme or spike, rarely branched. Flowers 4-merous, slightly zygomorphic, strongly protandrous, lacking a floral tube, producing nectar from raised disk at base of style and stamens. Petals pink to rose-purple, rarely white, obcordate or obtrullate, entire. Stamens 8, subequal in single whorl, erect at onset of anthesis, later reflexed; pollen blue or yellow, shed in monads. Style initially deflexed, becoming erect as stigma deflexes; stigma deeply 4-lobed and revolute, receptive on inner surfaces. Fruit an elongate capsule, slender, 4-loculed, loculidical. Seeds many, with terminal coma of silky hairs. 2n = 36, 72, 108.

Eight species: montane to arctic N hemisphere, widespread in Asia and Europe, barely reaching N Africa, and in North America south to the high mountains of C Mexico; four species in China.

The species occur primarily in moist, rocky areas in high-montane regions, with one species (Chamerion angustifolium) more widespread in disturbed, temperate habitats.

Raven (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 326-340. 1977 ["1976"]) divided this group into two subsections under Epilobium sect. Chamaenerion Tausch, elevated to sections by Holub (Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 7: 81-90. 1972), with Chamerion sect. Rosmarinifolium (Tacik) Holub occurring in SW Asia and Europe, and C. sect. Chamerion, the only section found in China, widespread in the N hemisphere. Although sometimes included within Epilobium, Chamerion forms a well-differentiated sister group to that genus, based on both morphological and molecular evidence.

1 Bracts much smaller than cauline leaves, leathery, sublinear; leaves linear to lanceolate, with distinct submarginal vein; seeds with inconspicuous chalazal collar (less than 0.05 mm).   4 C. angustifolium
+ Bracts ca. as long as cauline leaves, foliaceous, lanceolate to elliptic; leaves narrowly ovate or elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic, lacking submarginal vein; seeds with distinct chalazal collar (more than 0.08 mm)   (2)
2 (1) Style glabrous; stems subglabrous to sparsely strigillose, only rarely densely strigillose; seeds 1.2-2.1 mm; primary leaf veins obscure.   1 C. latifolium
+ Style pubescent on lower half; stems densely strigillose; seeds 1-1.3 mm; primary leaf veins distinct   (3)
3 (2) Secondary leaf veins conspicuously reticulate or anastomosing; plants 30-120 cm tall; sepals 11-15 mm; petals 8-14 mm; fruiting pedicels 1.5-5 cm.   3 C. conspersum
+ Secondary leaf veins obscure, not conspicuously anastomosing; plants 20-45 cm tall; sepals 15-20 mm; petals 17-25 mm; fruiting pedicels 1-3 cm.   2 C. speciosum

Lower Taxa


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