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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

33. Cirsium Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [334]. 1754.

蓟属 ji shu

Authors: Zhu Shi & Werner Greuter

Cirsium souliei

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Cirsium sect. Epitrachys Candolle ex Duby; C. subg. Lophiolepis Cassini; C. subg. Orthocentron Cassini; Echenais Cassini; Epitrachys (Candolle ex Duby) K. Koch; Eriolepis Cassini; Lophiolepis (Cassini) Cassini; Onotrophe Cassini; Orthocentron (Cassini) Cassini.

Herbs, annual to perennial, bisexual or dioecious. Stems (when developed) unwinged or sometimes with spiny wings. Leaves subentire to bipinnately divided, lanceolate or wider, margin spinulose or spiny. Capitula solitary to clustered. Phyllaries numerous, regularly imbricate or of subequal length, abaxially often with a dark glandular resinous medial swelling below apex, apex ending in a straight or gradually recurved spine, spinule, or acumen. Florets normally all bisexual, or if unisexual then plants dioecious. Stamen filaments pubescent; anther with short subentire to lacerate basal appendages. Achene narrowly obovoid, laterally compressed, often with 4 or more slender spaced longitudinal ribs or striae, otherwise smooth; apical rim forming a smooth-margined upright crown; elaiosome crowned by an inconspicuous disk. Pappus of 3 or 4 rows of plumose bristles, outer ones not much shorter than inner.

About 250-300 species: N Africa, Asia, Central and North America, Europe; 46 species (23 endemic) in China.

In addition, the following four species have been reported to occur in Taiwan: Cirsium ferum Kitamura (Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 149. 1932), C. hosokawae Kitamura (loc. cit.: 57), C. kawakamii Hayata (J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 159. 1911), and C. suzukii Kitamura (loc. cit.: 58). As no material has been seen by the present authors, these taxa have not been included in the following treatment and key.

1 Plants dioecious   (2)
+ Florets bisexual   (3)
2 (1) Stems glabrous or cobwebby-felted; leaves divided or undivided but if undivided then base cuneate.   45 C. arvense
+ Stems hairy; leaves undivided with base auriculate and semiamplexicaul.   46 C. shihianum
3 (1) Some of phyllaries expanded laterally into membranous wings or distally into a scarious appendage   (4)
+ Phyllaries lacking wings and scarious appendage   (12)
4 (3) Leaves adaxially rough and spinulose   (5)
+ Leaves adaxially smooth or covered with hair-tipped papillae and slightly rough but not spinulose   (6)
5 (4) Leaves abaxially densely felted; outer and middle phyllaries unwinged but inner phyllaries expanded into a scarious white or pink appendage.   37 C. leducii
+ Leaves abaxially sparsely cobwebby; outer and middle phyllaries with a margin expanded into yellowish scarious wings.   44 C. chrysolepis
6 (4) Bracts surrounding capitula with pectinately arranged long pungent spines   (7)
+ Bracts surrounding capitula (if present) without pectinately arranged long pungent spines   (9)
7 (6) Margin of middle phyllaries not laterally expanded into wings but inner phyllaries apically expanded.   41 C. argyracanthum
+ Margin of middle phyllaries expanded above base into denticulate to lacerate scarious wings   (8)
8 (7) Outer phyllaries unwinged but usually with pectinately spinulose margin, middle phyllaries with irregularly lacerate scarious wings.   42 C. glabrifolium
+ Outer and middle phyllaries with regularly denticulate-lacerate wings.   43 C. sieversii
9 (6) Leaves green, concolorous, and glabrous or with sparse hairs along veins   (10)
+ Leaves abaxially grayish white and cobwebby or felted, adaxially green, glabrous, papillose, or with scattered crispate hairs   (11)
10 (9) Stems below capitulum felted.   33 C. tianmushanicum
+ Stems with crispate hairs, below capitulum also ± cobwebby.   34 C. chinense
11 (9) Leaves undivided or rarely slightly lobed in proximal third.   35 C. lineare
+ Leaves pinnately lobed to pinnatipartite at least in proximal half.   36 C. shansiense
12 (3) Outer and middle phyllaries villous or hirsute with multicellular hairs or bristles   (13)
+ Involucre glabrous, sparsely cobwebby, or lanate, phyllaries never hirsute or villous   (14)
13 (12) Leaves concolorous, greenish, with sparse to dense bristles.   15 C. fuscotrichum
+ Leaves discolorous, abaxially grayish white and densely felted, adaxially green and glabrous.   16 C. muliense
14 (12) Involucre densely lanate   (15)
+ Involucre glabrous or cobwebby   (16)
15 (14) Leaves adaxially with scattered spinules or smooth, pinnately divided, segments elliptic, semiorbicular, or ovate.   7 C. eriophoroides
+ Leaves adaxially rough with sparse to dense spinules, bipinnatipartite, segments triangular to triangular-lanceolate.   12 C. lidjiangense
16 (14) Leaves adaxially rough and spinulose   (17)
+ Leaves adaxially smooth and not spinulose   (22)
17 (16) Stems winged.   14 C. vulgare
+ Stems unwinged   (18)
18 (17) Leaf segments elliptic, semiorbicular, or ovate   (19)
+ Leaf segments lanceolate to narrowly triangular   (20)
19 (18) Leaves discolorous, abaxially grayish white, adaxially green.   8 C. subulariforme
+ Leaves concolorous, green.   9 C. verutum
20 (18) Leaves concolorous, green to yellowish green.   10 C. chlorolepis
+ Leaves discolorous, abaxially grayish white, adaxially greenish   (21)
21 (20) Outer and middle phyllaries ending in a subulate spine 8-13 mm, outer phyllaries not much shorter than inner.   11 C. botryodes
+ Outer phyllaries ending in a spinule or acumen to 2 mm, outer phyllaries much shorter than inner.   13 C. interpositum
22 (16) Corolla yellow or white   (23)
+ Corolla red to purple   (24)
23 (22) Plants 80-150 cm tall; involucre 4-4.5 cm in diam.; leaves concolorous.   6 C. monocephalum
+ Plants 45-50 cm tall; involucre ca. 2 cm in diam.; leaves discolorous.   40 C. alberti
24 (22) Plants stemless with all leaves basal   (25)
+ Plants with leafy stems at least 20 cm tall   (26)
25 (24) Petiole unwinged or with discontinuous wing; outer and middle phyllaries narrowly triangular, pectinately fringed with spinules.   4 C. souliei
+ Petiole with continuous wing; outer and middle phyllaries ovate to lanceolate, margin not spinulose.   23 C. esculentum
26 (24) Stems winged.   29 C. alatum
+ Stems unwinged   (27)
27 (26) Outer phyllaries bractlike, dissimilar from and almost twice as long as middle and inner phyllaries.   1 C. bracteiferum
+ Outer phyllaries not bractlike, similar to and not longer than middle ones   (28)
28 (27) Outer and middle phyllaries pectinately fringed with spinules   (29)
+ Outer and middle phyllaries not fringed with spinules   (31)
29 (28) Leaves abaxially cobwebby or glabrous, adaxially glabrous.   5 C. fargesii
+ Leaves not cobwebby but with crispate multicellular hairs   (30)
30 (29) Involucre ca. 4 cm in diam., sparsely cobwebby.   2 C. leo
+ Involucre ca. 2 cm in diam., glabrous.   3 C. henryi
31 (28) Bracts surrounding capitula reduced to pectinately arranged long pungent spines   (32)
+ Bracts surrounding capitula (if present) not reduced to pectinately arranged long pungent spines   (34)
32 (31) Leaves concolorous, green, glabrous.   38 C. semenowii
+ Leaves discolorous, abaxially grayish green to whitish and cobwebby or felted, adaxially greenish and hairy   (33)
33 (32) Outer and middle phyllaries narrowed into a 0.1-0.5 cm spine.   24 C. periacanthaceum
+ Outer and middle phyllaries tipped with a ca. 3 cm spine.   39 C. sairamense
34 (31) Phyllaries in ca. 10 rows; corolla tube more than twice as long as limb.   32 C. pendulum
+ Phyllaries in 5-8 rows; corolla tube shorter or at most slightly longer than limb   (35)
35 (34) Leaves undivided, margins entire or toothed with spinules of at most 2 mm   (36)
+ Leaves pinnately divided (or at least lobed), margin usually distinctly spiny   (41)
36 (35) Outer and middle phyllaries with an apical spine 3-7 mm.   30 C. vernonioides
+ Phyllaries with an apical spinule of at most 1 mm   (37)
37 (36) Leaves discolorous, abaxially grayish to white and felted   (38)
+ Leaves concolorous, abaxially green and glabrous or with multicellular hairs but not felted   (39)
38 (37) Lower cauline leaves petiolate, to 3 cm wide, narrowed at base.   19 C. vlassovianum
+ All cauline leaves sessile, at least 4 cm wide, semiamplexicaul.   21 C. helenioides
39 (37) Involucre ovoid.   18 C. serratuloides
+ Involucre campanulate   (40)
40 (39) Outer and middle phyllaries abaxially with a dark resinous gland.   17 C. viridifolium
+ Phyllaries lacking a resinous gland.   20 C. fanjingshanense
41 (35) At least upper cauline leaves discolorous, abaxially gray to white and felted, adaxially ± green   (42)
+ Leaves concolorous, abaxially green and glabrous or with sparse to dense multicellular hairs but not felted   (43)
42 (41) Lower cauline leaves petiolate, often concolorous; capitula corymbose.   25 C. maackii
+ All cauline leaves sessile, discolorous; capitula racemose.   26 C. racemiforme
43 (41) Involucre 2-3 cm in diam   (44)
+ Involucre 3-4.5 cm in diam   (45)
44 (43) Cauline leaves sessile; basal leaves present at anthesis.   22 C. japonicum
+ Lower and middle cauline leaves petiolate; basal leaves withered at anthesis.   28 C. schantarense
45 (43) Corolla tube less than 1/2 as long as limb; outer and middle phyllaries abaxially with a dark resinous gland.   27 C. fangii
+ Corolla tube slightly longer than limb; phyllaries lacking a resinous gland.   31 C. handelii

  • List of lower taxa


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