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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Dryopteridaceae

3. Cyrtomium C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 86. 1836.

贯众属 guan zhong shu

Authors: Li-Bing Zhang & David S. Barrington

Amblia C. Presl; Cyrtomium sect. Amblia (C. Presl) T. Moore.

Plants terrestrial, perennial, evergreen. Rhizome erect or ascending, short, (together with basal stipe) densely covered with scales; scales concolorous or bicolorous, dark brown to blackish brown, ovate or broadly lanceolate, margins ciliate, fimbriate, toothed, or entire, apex acute or acuminate. Fronds 2-6 per rhizome, caespitose, monomorphic; stipe stramineous or brownish stramineous, canaliculate adaxially, scaly, scales similar to those on rhizome; distal stipe scales sparser, similar to but smaller than basal stipe scales. Lamina linear-lanceolate, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, or deltoid-ovate, imparipinnate, apex with apical pinna somewhat dissected at base, rarely simple; rachis sulcate adaxially, without proliferous bulbils, scaly, scales smaller than distal stipe scales. Pinnae lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, falcate, or ovate, acroscopic base or both acroscopic and basiscopic bases auriculate (sometimes auricles indistinct), margins entire or toothed; texture papery or leathery, rarely thinly papery, with or without lanceolate or linear microscales abaxially, glabrous adaxially; venation reticulate, with 2-8 rows of oblique-polygonal areoles on each side of midrib, each areole with 1-3 free included veinlets. Sori orbicular, terminal on included veinlets, in 1 to a few rows on each side of midrib, indusiate; indusia peltate, orbicular.

About 35 species: mainly distributed in E Asia with its center of diversity in SW China; one species occurs in S India and two in E, S, and W Africa and Madagascar; one species is endemic to Japan; one species occurs in Asia and reaches Hawaii; one species is introduced but locally naturalized in South Africa, Europe, Hawaii, Réunion, and North America; 31 species (21 endemic) in China.

1 Lamina leathery; pinna margins thickened, flat or sometimes repand   (2)
+ Lamina papery, rarely subleathery or membranous; pinna margins flat, not thickened   (12)
2 (1) Terminal pinna pinnatifid and acuminate; lateral pinnae 18-22 pairs.   11 C. chingianum
+ Terminal pinna simple, with 1 or 2 lobes or without lobes; lamina simple or with lateral pinnae 1-26 pairs   (3)
3 (2) Lateral pinnae cordate at base   (4)
+ Lateral pinnae rounded-cuneate, broadly cuneate, or truncate at base   (8)
4 (3) Lateral pinnae usually shorter than 3 cm, ovate or rarely deltoid-lanceolate.   1 C. nephrolepioides
+ Lateral pinnae usually longer than 6 cm, oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate, deltoid-ovate, or ovate   (5)
5 (4) Stipe scales ovate, margins fimbriate   (6)
+ Stipe scales lanceolate, margins with ciliate teeth   (7)
6 (5) Lamina 18-24 cm; lateral pinnae 6-7 cm, acuminate; areoles 2 or 3 rows on each side of midrib; indusia entire.   2 C. shingianum
+ Lamina ca. 42 cm; lateral pinnae 12-14 cm, acute; areoles 7-9 rows on each side of midrib; indusia toothed.   3 C. guizhouense
7 (5) Lamina deltoid or ovate, simple or rarely with 2 or more lobes or 2 or more free lateral pinnae; venation palmate or ternate.   4 C. hemionitis
+ Lamina oblong or triangular, imparipinnate, lateral pinnae 1-5 pairs; venation pinnate.   5 C. pachyphyllum
8 (3) Pinnae acuminate or caudate at apex   (9)
+ Pinnae obtuse or rounded at apex   (10)
9 (8) Lateral pinnae lanceolate without acroscopic auricles; terminal pinna entire or lobed; indusia entire; stipe scales bicolorous, with dark brown centers and pale brown margins.   9 C. devexiscapulae
+ Lateral pinnae obliquely ovate or ovate-lanceolate and with conspicuous acroscopic auricles; terminal pinna forked or trifurcate; indusia incised; stipe scales concolorous, pale brown.   10 C. falcatum
10 (8) Two sides of midrib and base of lateral pinnae nearly equilateral; lateral pinnae 1-6 pairs.   6 C. grossum
+ Two sides of midrib of lateral pinnae obviously inequilateral, base of lateral pinnae oblique and subtruncate; lateral pinnae 1-21 pairs, apex acute or obtuse   (11)
11 (10) Lamina 3-7 cm, acute; lateral pinnae 1-4 pairs, obliquely broadly ovate or obliquely flabellate, length subequal to width.   7 C. sinningense
+ Lamina 13-35 cm, acuminate; lateral pinnae 12-21 pairs, ovate, ca. 2 ?as long as wide.   8 C. obliquum
12 (1) Lateral pinnae with coarse teeth on margin   (13)
+ Lateral pinnae with only small teeth or sometimes subentire on margin   (19)
13 (12) Acroscopic base of lateral pinnae ?auriculate   (14)
+ Acroscopic base of lateral pinnae not auriculate   (15)
14 (13) Auricles of lateral pinnae small and blunt or semicircular; indusia entire on margin.   25 C. tsinglingense
+ Auricles of lateral pinnae long and acute apically, deltoid; indusia irregularly dentate on margin.   26 C. caryotideum
15 (13) Lateral pinnae lanceolate   (16)
+ Lateral pinnae ovate, oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate, or broadly lanceolate   (17)
16 (15) Stipe 22-36 cm; base of pinnae nearly equilateral, cuneate; indusia toothed on margin.   30 C. aequibasis
+ Stipe 40-55 cm; base of pinnae inequilateral, rounded-cuneate and with acroscopic side ?decurrent; indusia entire on margin.   31 C. yunnanense
17 (15) Leaves membranous; indusia denticulate on margin.   27 C. membranifolium
+ Leaves papery; indusia entire on margin   (18)
18 (17) Lamina acute; lateral pinnae 8-13 pairs, ovate.   28 C. serratum
+ Lamina obtuse; lateral pinnae 3-6 pairs, broadly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate.   29 C. anomophyllum
19 (12) Lateral pinnae inequilateral   (20)
+ Lateral pinnae nearly equilateral   (25)
20 (19) Acroscopic margins of lateral pinnae cuneate, basiscopic margins broadly cuneate.   24 C. conforme
+ Acroscopic margins of lateral pinnae subtruncate, basiscopic margins cuneate, broadly cuneate, or rounded-cuneate   (21)
21 (20) Lateral pinnae obliquely ovate, rarely broadly lanceolate.   20 C. latifalcatum
+ Lateral pinnae lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate   (22)
22 (21) Lateral pinnae usually shorter than 4 cm and narrower than 1.5 cm; acroscopic base obviously auriculate, auricles deltoid; basiscopic base cuneate.   12 C. lonchitoides
+ Lateral pinnae up to 8-12 cm and 2.6 cm wide or wider; acroscopic base slightly or obviously auriculate; basiscopic base rounded or cuneate   (23)
23 (22) Lateral pinnae usually shorter than 8 cm; acroscopic base slightly auriculate, auricles blunt.   21 C. fortunei
+ Lateral pinnae 8-12 cm; acroscopic base obviously auriculate, auricles semicircular or deltoid   (24)
24 (23) Lamina obtuse; lateral pinnae 4-14 pairs, distant; indusia incised or toothed.   22 C. yamamotoi
+ Lamina acute; lateral pinnae 20-22 pairs, contiguous; indusia entire.   23 C. confertifolium
25 (19) Lateral pinnae ovate or basal 1 or 2 pairs ovate   (26)
+ Lateral pinnae broadly lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or lanceolate   (28)
26 (25) Indusia toothed on margin.   15 C. tukusicola
+ Indusia entire on margin   (27)
27 (26) Pinnae 2-6 pairs, 10-18 ?5-8 cm, ovate at base.   13 C. macrophyllum
+ Pinnae more than 7 pairs, < 10 ?8 cm, rounded-cuneate to cuneate at base.   14 C. muticum
28 (25) Lateral pinnae broadly lanceolate, elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, base broadly cuneate to cuneate; both surfaces flat, without obvious apophyses (swellings on which sori are located)   (29)
+ Lateral pinnae lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, base cuneate; abaxial surface with pits containing sori or with obvious apophyses   (30)
29 (28) Lateral pinnae 4-9 pairs; basal pinnae not contracted; pinna margins entire or distal portion with small teeth; terminal pinna forked or trifurcate, 10-13 ?6-10 cm; indusia grayish brown in center, entire or toothed on margin; areoles 7 or 8 rows on each side of midrib.   17 C. omeiense
+ Lateral pinnae 15-20 pairs; basal 2 pairs of pinnae contracted toward lamina base; pinna margins with small teeth; terminal pinna entire or lobed, 5-8 ?.8-2.5 cm; indusia dark brown in center, lacerate on margin; areoles 5 or 6 rows on each side of midrib.   16 C. atropunctatum
30 (28) Lateral pinnae 8-13 pairs; terminal pinna obovate, ovate, or rhombic; sori contained in pits on abaxial surface of pinnae, without obvious apophyses; indusia flat or concave at middle.   18 C. urophyllum
+ Lateral pinnae 6 or 7 pairs; terminal pinna oblong; sori on obvious apophyses; indusia raised and caplike at middle.   19 C. taiwanianum

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