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10. Echinops Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 814. 1753.

蓝刺头属 lan ci tou shu

Acantholepis Lessing.

Herbs, perennial or rarely annual. Stems erect, usually apically branched, mostly cobwebby to lanate or glandular hairy or both. Leaves spiny. Pseudocephalia usually solitary, terminal to stem and branches, rarely clustered, bracteate at base. Capitula deciduous, inserted on a globose secondary receptacle. Basal phyllaries grading into bristles; middle phyllaries keeled and distally with a ciliate margin, apex usually spiny; inner phyllaries often shorter, unarmed, distinct to completely connate. Corolla white, blue, or purple. Anthers bluish gray. Achene covered with long straight appressed hairs. Pappus scales distinct to connate, inserted directly on apical plate.

About 120 species: Africa, Asia, Europe; 17 species (five endemic) in China.

Echinops albicaulis Kamelin & Kirilov and E. chantaviscus Trautvetter have been reported from Xinjiang (G. M. Shen, Fl. Xinjiang. 5: 238, 241. 1999), but they are not included in the following treatment and key because no material from China has been seen by the present authors.

1 Annuals; middle phyllaries abaxially cobwebby   (2)
+ Perennials; middle phyllaries glabrous or strigose but not abaxially cobwebby   (3)
2 (1) Stems and branches yellowish, glabrous or with glandular hairs; leaves green, sparsely cobwebby and glandular hairy.   16 E. gmelinii
+ Stems and branches whitish to canescent, densely cobwebby to lanate; leaves grayish white, densely cobwebby to lanate.   17 E. nanus
3 (1) Margin of pappus scales not strigose   (4)
+ Margin of pappus scales strigose   (5)
4 (3) Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, undivided and with an entire margin, discolorous, abaxially grayish white, adaxially green and glabrous.   14 E. integrifolius
+ Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate, margin dentate to bipinnatifid, concolorous, cobwebby to lanate.   15 E. humilis
5 (3) Leaves leathery   (6)
+ Leaves ± thickly papery   (10)
6 (5) Outermost phyllaries 1/3-1/2 as long as involucre   (7)
+ Outermost phyllaries 1/5-1/4 as long as involucre   (8)
7 (6) Lower leaves lanceolate, undivided but toothed, adaxially glabrous and shiny.   1 E. coriophyllus
+ Leaves elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate, pinnatipartite to bipinnatipartite, adaxially sparsely cobwebby.   2 E. przewalskyi
8 (6) Plants to 1.5 m tall; stems sparsely cobwebby, strigose, and with glandular hairs.   4 E. talassicus
+ Plants 0.2-0.6 m tall; stems cobwebby to lanate and strigose but lacking glandular hairs   (9)
9 (8) Corolla lobes outside glabrous.   3 E. ritro
+ Corolla lobes outside with a few hairs.   5 E. tjanschanicus
10 (5) Phyllaries abaxially strigose   (11)
+ Phyllaries abaxially glabrous   (12)
11 (10) Leaves adaxially glabrous or sparsely cobwebby.   12 E. tricholepis
+ Leaves adaxially densely strigose.   13 E. sphaerocephalus
12 (10) Stems glabrous to densely cobwebby in lower half but lacking bristles   (13)
+ Stems cobwebby and beset with bristles in lower half   (14)
13 (12) Lobes of lower and middle cauline leaves densely spinulose ciliate.   6 E. grijsii
+ Lobes of lower and middle cauline leaves entire or with irregular spiny teeth.   7 E. davuricus
14 (12) Leaves rough, adaxially sparsely strigose.   11 E. setifer
+ Leaves smooth, glabrous or adaxially sparsely cobwebby   (15)
15 (14) Outermost phyllaries ca. 1/4 as long as involucre; plants 1.5-2 m tall.   10 E. sylvicola
+ Outermost phyllaries 1/3-1/2 as long as involucre; plants 0.3-1 m tall   (16)
16 (15) Leaves pinnatipartite; phyllaries 18-22.   8 E. pseudosetifer
+ Leaves bipinnatisect; phyllaries 16-19.   9 E. dissectus

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