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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Berberidaceae

8. Epimedium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 117. 1753.

淫羊藿属 yin yang huo shu

Authors: Junsheng Ying, David E. Boufford & Anthony R. Brach

Aceranthus C. Morren & Decaisne; Vindicta Rafinesque.

Herbs, perennial, deciduous or evergreen. Rhizome sympodial, short or horizontally creeping, stout. Stems solitary or caespitose, glabrous, squamate at base. Leaves basal or cauline, simple or compound; petioles of basal leaves longer than those of cauline; leaflets ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or suborbicular, basally cordate, lateral lobes asymmetric, with outer basal lobe longer than inner, usually spiny on margin, apex acute or acuminate. Flowering stem leafless or with 1-4 leaves, opposite or rarely alternate. Inflorescence simple or compound, with terminal raceme or panicle, few or many flowered, glabrous or glandular. Flowers dimerous. Sepals 8 in 2 whorls; inner sepals petaloid. Petals 4, flat, or saccate and prolonged outward into nectariferous pouches or spurs shorter or longer than sepals. Stamens 4, opposite petals; filaments glabrous; anthers dehiscing by 2 oblong valves, curling upward; pollen grains elliptic, smooth, with 3 longitudinal furrows. Ovary with parietal placentation; ovules 6-15; style slender; stigma slightly dilated. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds with conspicuous fleshy aril. 2n = 12.

About 50 species: China, India (W Himalaya), Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East), S Europe, and N Africa; 41 species (40 endemic) in China; eight additional species (seven endemic) are insufficiently known.

See Stearn, The Genus Epimedium and Other Herbaceous Berberidaceae [hereafter Gen. Epimedium]. 2002.

Epimedium cavaleriei H. Léveillé (Cat. Pl. Yun-Nan, 18. 1916) is a synonym of Stauntonia cavalerieana Gagnepain (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 55: 47. 1908) in the Lardizabalaceae (see Fl. China 6: 452. 2001).

Also see post-FOC publication: Zhang, Y. J. et al. 2011. A taxonomic revision of unifoliate Chinese Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae). Kew Bull. 66: 253-262.

Insufficiently known species

Epimedium baojingense Q. L. Chen & B. M. Yang, Acta Phy­totax. Sin. 20: 482. 1982 ["baojingensis"].
Epimedium baojingense is known only from the type gathering (Hunan: Baojing County, Lüdong Shan, 23 Apr 1956, B. M. Yang 34, holotype, HNNU). As mentioned by Stearn (Gen. Epimedium, 113. 2002), E. baojingense has stem leaves with only a single leaflet, as in E. simplicifolium. It is reported to differ from E. simplicifolium by having a simple inflorescence with dark yellow hairs.
Epimedium campanulatum Ogisu, Kew Bull. 51: 401. 1996.
According to the author, Epimedium campanulatum is morpho­logically similar to E. ecalcaratum G. Y. Zhong and E. platypetalum K. I. Meyer. Epimedium campanulatum is reported to differ from E. ecal­caratum in having 1 or 2 leaves per flowering stem, and basal and cau­line leaves with only 3, never 5 or 7, leaflets. Epimedium campanulatum differs from E. platypetalum in having compact or shortly creeping rhizomes and compound, rarely simple, inflorescences. It flowers in mid to late May and occurs at ca. 2000 m in Sichuan (Dujiangyan).
Epimedium grandiflorum C. Morren, Belgique Hort. 2: 141. 1852.
Epimedium grandiflorum was described from cultivated plants brought to Belgium (Ghent) from Japan by Philipp Franz von Siebold in 1830. Stearn includes in the range of E. grandiflorum "southern Man­churia," but we have seen no specimens from China. The reports of E. grandiflorum in the Flora of Anhui (see X. H. Qian, Fl. Anhui 2: 346. 1986) and Flora of Zhejiang (see C. S. Ding, Fl. Zhejiang 2: 307-320. 1992) are probably based on plants here treated as E. koreanum.
Epimedium jingzhouense G. H. Xia & G. Y. Li, Nordic J. Bot. 27: 472. 2009.
Epimedium jingzhouense is known only from the type gathering (Hunan: Jingzhou County, Pukou village, 300 m, 8 Apr 2008, Xia et al. s.n., holotype, ZJFC).
Epimedium pseudowushanense B. L. Guo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 45: 814. 2007.
According to the authors, Epimedium pseudowushanense is mor­phologically similar to E. wushanense but differs in flower structure. It differs from E. mikinorii in having leaves abaxially villous and glaucous, more slender spurs, 10-15 mm, inner sepals broadly ovate or ovate, and purplish or yellow petals with purple lamina. Its flowering time is from Mar-Apr, fruiting is in May, and it occurs at 900-1400 m in Guangxi and Guizhou.
Epimedium pudingense S. Z. He, Y. Y. Wang & B. L. Guo, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 47: 226. 2010.
Epimedium pudingense is known only from the type gathering (Guizhou: Puding County, 1300 m, 13 Apr 1995, S. Z. He 95413, holo­type, HGCM).
Epimedium qingchengshanense G. Y. Zhong & B. L. Guo, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 45: 817. 2007.
Epimedium qingchengshanense is reported to differ from E. far­gesii in having smaller flowers but larger rounded petal lamina and pur­ple filaments. Its flowering time is from May-Jun and it occurs at 900-1500 m in Sichuan (Qingcheng Shan).
Epimedium shennongjiaense Yan J. Zhang & J. Q. Li, Novon 19: 567. 2009 ["shennongjiaensis"].
Epimedium shennongjiaense is known only from the type gath­ering (Hubei: cultivated at Wuhan Botanical Garden from material col­lected at Muyuping, Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, 30 Mar 2007, Y. J. Zhang 148, holotype, HIB; isotype, HIB).

1 Leaves simple   (2)
+ Leaves compound   (5)
2 (1) Inflorescences panicles.   1 E. simplicifolium
+ Inflorescences racemes   (3)
3 (2) Petals without spurs; stem leaf 1; plant 15-25 cm tall.   2 E. parvifolium
+ Petals with spurs; stem leaves 2, opposite; plant 20-60 cm tall   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade oblong to suborbicular; sepals 4 in 1 whorl; petals purple, saccate.   3 E. zhushanense
+ Leaf blade ovate to ovate-elliptic; sepals 8 in 2 whorls; petals yellow, horn-shaped.   4 E. glandulosopilosum
5 (1) Petals without spurs   (6)
+ Petals with spurs   (14)
6 (5) Flowering stem leaf 1.   5 E. platypetalum
+ Flowering stem leaves 2-4   (7)
7 (6) Flowering stem leaves 2   (8)
+ Flowering stem leaves 2-4   (11)
8 (7) Rachis and pedicels glandular pubescent; leaflets abaxially pubescent or tomentose.   6 E. pubescens
+ Rachis and pedicels glabrous; leaflets abaxially glabrous or strigose   (9)
9 (8) Base of terminal leaflet truncate or rounded; petals suborbicular, apex slightly involute, ca. 1 mm.   7 E. truncatum
+ Base of terminal leaflet cordate; petals saccate, 1.5-4 mm   (10)
10 (9) Apex of terminal leaflet unlobed; apex of sepals unlobed.   8 E. sagittatum
+ Apex of terminal leaflet 2-5-lobed; apex of sepals 2-lobed.   9 E. lobophyllum
11 (7) Rachis and pedicels glandular pubescent; leaves 3(or 5 or 7)-foliolate; inner sepals purple.   10 E. ecalcaratum
+ Rachis and pedicels glabrous; leaves trifoliolate; inner sepals white   (12)
12 (11) Leaflets lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, abaxially lanose; petals flat, apex slightly involute.   11 E. borealiguizhouense
+ Leaflets ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, abaxially strigose; petals saccate   (13)
13 (12) Inflorescence 70-210-flowered; inner sepals ovate; petals orange-yellow and red; leaflets 5-11 mm.   12 E. myrianthum
+ Inflorescence 300-400-flowered; inner sepals lanceolate; petals pale yellow; leaflets 12-14 mm.   13 E. multiflorum
14 (5) Inflorescences racemes   (15)
+ Inflorescences panicles   (28)
15 (14) Flowering stem leaf 1   (16)
+ Flowering stem leaves 2   (20)
16 (15) Leaves biternate, leaflets 9.   14 E. koreanum
+ Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets 3 or 5   (17)
17 (16) Leaflets 5 (occasionally 3), abaxially glabrous.   15 E. flavum
+ Leaflets 3, abaxially pubescent   (18)
18 (17) Spurs 2.2-2.6 cm; inner sepals pale rose.   16 E. brachyrrhizum
+ Spurs shorter than 2 cm; inner sepals white   (19)
19 (18) Leaflets narrowly ovate or ovate, abaxially pubescent along midvein; inner sepals narrowly elliptic, 11-20 mm.   17 E. leptorrhizum
+ Leaflets ovate or suborbicular, abaxially puberulent; inner sepals lanceolate, ca. 12 mm.   18 E. pauciflorum
20 (15) Rachis and pedicels glandular pubescent   (21)
+ Rachis and pedicels glabrous   (24)
21 (20) Inner sepals narrowly lanceolate, white or pinkish, reflexed; spurs shorter than inner sepals.   24 E. fargesii
+ Inner sepals ovate or narrowly ovate, pale yellow, not reflexed; spurs longer than inner sepals   (22)
22 (21) Leaflets ovate or broadly ovate; spurs 7-12 mm, not curved.   25 E. enshiense
+ Leaflets narrowly ovate; spurs 20-25 mm, curved   (23)
23 (22) Leaflets abaxially strigose; inner sepals narrowly ovate, apex acuminate.   26 E. franchetii
+ Leaflets abaxially villous or subglabrous; inner sepals suboblong, apex acute.   27 E. lishihchenii
24 (20) Inner sepals ovate; leaflets abaxially strigose   (25)
+ Inner sepals elliptic, lanceolate, or cymbiform; leaflets abaxially puberulent or glabrous   (26)
25 (24) Spurs 4-5 mm, pale yellow, curved; bracts spinulose-serrulate; leaflets abaxially appressed whitish puberulent.   19 E. shuichengense
+ Spurs 15-16 mm, purple, slightly curved; bracts entire; leaflets abaxially glaucous, with sparse minute prostrate hairs.   20 E. epsteinii
26 (24) Leaflets abaxially glabrous; inner sepals cymbiform, reddish; petals pale yellow.   21 E. fangii
+ Leaflets abaxially puberulent; inner sepals elliptic or lanceolate, white; petals white   (27)
27 (26) Pedicels 2.5-5 cm; inner sepals elliptic; spurs horn-shaped, slightly curved, ca. 2.5 cm.   22 E. latisepalum
+ Pedicels 2-3 cm; inner sepals lanceolate; spurs subulate, curved, 1.5-1.8 cm.   23 E. ogisui
28 (14) Leaves biternately compound, leaflets 9, occasionally 5   (29)
+ Leaves ternately compound, leaflets 3 or 5   (30)
29 (28) Flowering stem leaves 2, 9-foliolate; flowers white or pale yellow; spurs shorter than inner sepals, ca. 2 mm.   40 E. brevicornu
+ Flowering stem leaves 3, 9-foliolate or occasionally 5-foliolate; flowers yellow; spurs longer than inner sepals, ca. 15 mm.   41 E. elongatum
30 (28) Leaflets 5, rarely 3.   28 E. davidii
+ Leaflets 3   (31)
31 (30) Rachis and pedicels glabrous   (32)
+ Rachis and pedicels, or only pedicels, glandular pubescent   (35)
32 (31) Leaflets abaxially glabrous   (33)
+ Leaflets abaxially hairy   (34)
33 (32) Leaflet margin remotely spinose-serrate; spur of petals much shorter than inner sepals, curved, blunt.   29 E. dolichostemon
+ Leaflet margin closely spinose-serrulate; spur of petals longer than inner sepals, slightly curved, subulate.   30 E. mikinorii
34 (32) Leaflets abaxially strigose, margin undulate; inner sepals ovate, pale green.   31 E. chlorandrum
+ Leaflets abaxially lanate or glabrous, margin flat; inner sepals broadly elliptic, pale yellow.   32 E. wushanense
35 (31) Spur of petals shorter than inner sepals   (36)
+ Spur of petals longer than inner sepals   (37)
36 (35) Leaflets abaxially conspicuously puberulent; inner sepals lanceolate, ca. 12 mm; spur of petals brown.   33 E. stellulatum
+ Leaflets glabrous or pilose along veins; inner sepals elliptic, ca. 6 mm; spur of petals yellow.   34 E. reticulatum
37 (35) Leaflets lanceolate, margins undulate-sinuate and sparsely spinose-serrate; outer sepals apically emarginate.   35 E. ilicifolium
+ Leaflets ovate to lanceolate, margins flat; outer sepals apically entire   (38)
38 (37) Leaflets ovate to lanceolate, abaxially densely strigose.   36 E. acuminatum
+ Leaflets ovate, abaxially sparsely pubescent or nearly glabrous   (39)
39 (38) Leaflets abaxially glaucescent, terminal leaflet oblong; spurs straight.   37 E. hunanense
+ Leaflets abaxially glaucous, terminal leaflet ovate; spurs curved   (40)
40 (39) Inner sepals narrowly ovate, ca. 6 mm; spurs 20-35 mm, pale yellow; inflorescence a panicle; blade length:width ratio 2.   38 E. rhizomatosum
+ Inner sepals narrowly lanceolate, 15-17 mm; spurs 15-20 mm, pale purplish red; inflorescence a raceme; blade length:width ratio 2.5.   39 E. sutchuenense

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