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60. Epipactis Zinn, Cat. Pl. Hort. Gott. 85. 1757.

火烧兰属 huo shao lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Yi-Bo Luo, Phillip J. Cribb & Stephan W. Gale

Epipactis helleborine

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Amesia A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride; Arthrochilium (Irmisch) Beck (1890), not Arthrochilus F. Mueller (1858); Calliphyllon Bubani; Epipactis [unranked] Arthrochilium Irmisch; Helleborine Miller; Limonias Ehrhart; Parapactis W. Zimmermann.

Herbs, terrestrial, autotrophic or rarely holomycotrophic, medium-sized. Rhizome creeping, short or elongate, with many elongate, fleshy roots. Stem erect, leafy, with 2 or 3 scalelike sheaths toward base, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves 3 to many, cauline, spirally arranged, broadly elliptic to linear-lanceolate, plicate, scabrous or smooth. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, often secund, few to many flowered; floral bracts usually foliaceous. Flowers spreading or nodding, resupinate or very rarely not resupinate, medium-sized. Sepals free, spreading or connivent, glabrous, puberulent, or pubescent. Petals similar to sepals but shorter; lip fleshy, not spurred, constricted near middle to form a distinct epichile and hypochile, and sometimes with a mesochile in between; hypochile cymbiform or saccate, sometimes containing lamellae; mesochile (when present) short or elongate, narrow; epichile spreading, usually hinged at its base, thickened or not, variable in shape, sometimes 3-lobed, sometimes with wartlike calli or keels. Column short, without a column foot; anther sessile; pollinia 4, granular-farinaceous, without caudicles; viscidium absent in autogamous species; rostellum usually large, very rarely absent; stigma rounded to subquadrate. Capsule pendulous or ascending, obovoid to ellipsoid.

About 20 species: throughout Europe and through temperate and alpine parts of E, S, and SW Asia, also in tropical Africa and North America; ten species (two endemic) in China.

1 Upper stem and rachis glabrous (though rachis of E. alata occasionally puberulent)   (2)
+ Upper stem and rachis pubescent   (4)
2 (1) Flowers not resupinate, rose-purple; floral bracts all shorter than ovary.   10 E. alata
+ Flowers resupinate, green, yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-brown; lower floral bracts foliaceous and exceeding flowers   (3)
3 (2) Lip with a short mesochile 1-2 mm; lateral margins of mesochile parallel; epichile with a pair of low keels.   8 E. thunbergii
+ Lip with an elongate mesochile ca. 6 mm; lateral margins of mesochile slightly protruding and obtuse-rounded; epichile without keels.   9 E. xanthophaea
4 (1) Hypochile of lip subglobose-saccate, without lateral lobes   (5)
+ Hypochile of lip cymbiform, with lateral lobes   (6)
5 (4) Leaves glabrous.   1 E. helleborine
+ Leaves adaxially white papillose-puberulent along veins and margins.   2 E. papillosa
6 (4) Epichile of lip oblate to suborbicular, connected to hypochile by a short mesochile ca. 2 mm.   7 E. palustris
+ Epichile of lip ovate, ovate-elliptic, or elliptic, connected directly to hypochile; lip without a mesochile   (7)
7 (6) Plants 10-20 cm tall.   5 E. humilior
+ Plants 30-100 cm tall   (8)
8 (7) Leaves scabrous adaxially; rachis 10- to more than 20-flowered.   3 E. mairei
+ Leaves glabrous; rachis 2-8-flowered   (9)
9 (8) Leaves 6-9; lip purple or pink with purple or dark red venation.   4 E. royleana
+ Leaves 3-5; lip white with brown and orange markings.   6 E. veratrifolia

  • List of lower taxa


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