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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Brassicaceae

83. Erysimum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 660. 1753.

糖芥属 tang jie shu

Zhou Taiyan (Cheo Tai-yien), Lu Lianli (Lou Lian-li), Yang Guang; Vladimir I. Dorofeyev, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

Erysimum benthamii

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Cheiranthus Linnaeus; Cheirinia Link; Cuspidaria (de Candolle) Besser; Syrenia Andrzejowski ex Besser.

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, rarely subshrubs or shrubs. Trichomes sessile, medifixed, appressed, malpighiaceous or 3-5(-8)-rayed stellate. Stems simple or branched basally and/or apically. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate, simple, entire or dentate, rarely pinnatifid or pinnatisect. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, cuneate or attenuate at base, rarely auriculate, entire or dentate. Racemes ebracteate or basally bracteate, rarely bracteate throughout, corymbose, elongated or not in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened and nearly as wide as fruit, erect, ascending, divaricate, or reflexed. Sepals oblong or linear, erect, pubescent, base of lateral pair saccate or not. Petals yellow or orange, rarely white, pink, purple, or violet; blade suborbicular, obovate, spatulate, or oblong, apex rounded or emarginate; claw differentiated from blade, subequaling or longer than sepals. Stamens 6, erect, tetradynamous; anthers oblong or linear. Nectar glands 1, 2, or 4, distinct or confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands present or absent. Ovules 15-100 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques or rarely silicles, linear or rarely oblong, terete, 4-angled, latiseptate, or angustiseptate, sessile or rarely shortly stipitate; valves with an obscure to prominent midvein, pubescent on outside, rarely also on inside, keeled or not, smooth or torulose; replum rounded; septum complete, membranous, translucent or opaque, veinless; style obsolete or short, rarely half as long as or subequaling fruit, often pubescent; stigma capitate, entire or 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate or rarely biseriate, winged, margined, or wingless, oblong, plump or flattened; seed coat minutely reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted; cotyledons incumbent or rarely accumbent.

About 150 species: N hemisphere, primarily in Asia and Europe, with 14 species in Central and North America and eight species in N Africa and Macaronesia; 17 species (five endemic) in China.

Erysimum cheiri (Linnaeus) Crantz (as Cheiranthus cheiri Linnaeus in FRPS) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant, but it is not known if it has become naturalized in China or elsewhere in Asia.

1 Sepals united, persistent well after fruit maturity; fruit oblong, slightly angustiseptate, with transversely oriented malpighiaceous trichomes; styles (4-)5-10(-12) mm   17 E. siliculosum
+ Sepals free, caducous shortly after anthesis; fruit linear or rarely linear-oblong, terete, 4-angled, or latiseptate; with longitudinally oriented, malpighiaceous and/or 3-5-fid stellate trichomes; styles 0.5-3(-4) mm.   (2)
2 (1) Annuals or biennials.   (3)
+ Perennials.   (10)
3 (2) Fruiting pedicels nearly as thick as fruit.   (4)
+ Fruiting pedicels distinctly narrower than fruit.   (5)
4 (3) Trichomes malpighiaceous mixed with 3-forked ones; fruiting pedicels 2-4 mm; petals 6-8 × 1.5-2 mm; fruit 4-angled, (2-)3-8(-10) cm   16 E. repandum
+ Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous; fruiting pedicels 0.5-1.5(-2) mm; petals 3-4(-5) × 0.3-0.6 mm; fruit terete, (1.3-)1.7-2.2(-2.5) cm   15 E. sisymbrioides
5 (3) Fruit valves densely stellate inside.   (6)
+ Fruit valves glabrous inside, if sparsely pubescent (rarely in E. hieraciifolium), then petals more than 6 × 2 mm.   (7)
6 (5) Petals spatulate, well differentiated into claw and limb, 1.5-2 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 5-13(-16) mm; seeds 1-1.3 mm   13 E. cheiranthoides
+ Petals linear to linear-oblanceolate, undifferentiated into a claw and limb, 0.3-0.5(-0.7) mm wide; fruiting pedicels 3-7(-9) mm; seeds (0.6-)0.7-0.9   14 E. macilentum
7 (5) Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous, rarely 3-fid ones on style; fruit smooth, with 4 bands of white trichomes separated by glabrous replum and valve midveins   9 E. canescens
+ Trichomes 3- or 4-fid mixed with malpighiaceous ones on leaves and fruit; fruit torulose, without 4 white bands of trichomes.   (8)
8 (7) Fruit (6-)7-11(-13) cm; racemes bracteate at base   10 E. benthamii
+ Fruit (1-)1.5-3.5(-4) cm; racemes ebracteate.   (9)
9 (8) Plants (10-)30-90(-110) cm tall; fruiting pedicels suberect or ascending, subappressed to rachis; leaves entire or obscurely denticulate   11 E. hieraciifolium
+ Plants 3-10 cm tall; fruiting pedicels divaricate; leaves sinuate-dentate or dentate   12 E. schlagintweitianum
10 (2) Petals pink or purple.   (11)
+ Petals yellow or orange.   (12)
11 (10) Petals narrowly spatulate, 7-9(-10) × 1.7-2(-2.5) mm; plants (1.5-)2-6(-8) cm tall   5 E. funiculosum
+ Petals broadly obovate or broadly spatulate, (14-)16-22(-25) × (3-)4-6(-8) mm; plants (6-)10-28(-36) cm tall   4 E. roseum
12 (10) Plants stemless; raceme subumbellate and often without a rachis   2 E. handel-mazzettii
+ Plants with a distinct stem; raceme short or long, with a distinct rachis.   (13)
13 (12) Racemes bracteate throughout; fruit 4-5 mm wide; seeds 3-4.5 mm   1 E. forrestii
+ Racemes ebracteate or only lowermost few flowers bracteate; fruit 1-2 mm wide; seeds 0.8-3 mm.   (14)
14 (13) Leaf blade mostly filiform to narrowly linear, folded   7 E. flavum
+ Leaves lanceolate, oblong, lanceolate-linear, or very rarely linear, not folded.   (15)
15 (14) Fruit smooth, strongly 4-angled, with 4 bands of white trichomes separated by glabrous replum and valve midveins   9 E. canescens
+ Fruit torulose, flattened, subterete, or slightly 4-angled, without 4 bands of white trichomes.   (16)
16 (15) Plants 2-10(-15) cm tall; petals yellow, 0.6-1(-1.2) cm; sepals 4-6 mm; raceme usually deflexed in fruit   8 E. deflexum
+ Plants (12-)20-100 cm tall; petals often orange-yellow, (1.2-)1.5-2(-2.3) cm; sepals (6-)7-10(-11) mm; racemes erect.   (17)
17 (16) Basal and lowermost leaves coarsely dentate; stigma subentire; fruit (5-)8-11 cm; Sichuan, Xizang, and Yunnan   3 E. wardii
+ Basal and lowermost leaves entire or obscurely denticulate; stigma prominently 2-lobed; fruit (1.1-)2.5-5(-8) cm; N and E China, Russia, and Korea   6 E. amurense

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