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8. Garcinia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 443. 1753.

藤黄属 teng huang shu

Authors: Xi-wen Li, Jie Li & Peter Stevens

Brindonia Thouars; Cambogia Linnaeus; Discostigma Hasskarl; Hebradendron Graham; Mangostana Gaertner; Oxycarpus Loureiro; Rhinostigma Miquel; Xanthochymus Roxburgh.

Trees or shrubs, usually with yellow latex. Terminal bud functional; buds usually lacking scales. Leaves opposite [or rarely whorled], very rarely stipulate, petiolate, entire, leathery to papery, usually glabrous; secondary veins usually prominent, numerous to few, oblique to perpendicular to midvein; tertiary veins reticulate, with adaxial brownish transvenous resin canals [or much branched] and abaxial linear [to punctiform or much branched] or intervenous translucent glands; petiole often with basal liguliform appendage. Plant functionally dioecious (sometimes apparently flowers bisexual or plant monoecious), flowers in terminal and/or axillary cymes (often thyrsiform), triads or fascicles, or paired or solitary. Sepals [2 or 3 or]4 or 5, decussate or imbricate (quincuncial), free [or very rarely completely connate in bud]. Petals [3 or]4 or 5[-8], fascicles each with many to few stamens with filaments almost free to completely united, or ± completely connate [or adnate to petals], with anthers 1, 2, 4 or many-celled, basifixed or variously united; fasciclodes (sterile stamen fascicles) 4 or 5, antisepalous and free or ± united or absent; pistillode present or absent. Female flowers: staminode fascicles as for staminate flowers but smaller or staminodes apparently free; fasciclodes free as in male flower but smaller or united in a ring at base of ovary or absent; stigmas free or ± united, peltate, 2-5-lobed or entire. Berry smooth or sulcate [or verrucose or rarely secondarily dehiscent], with leathery to thin exocarp and 1-5 or sometimes more seeds embedded in endocarpic pulp. Seeds large; hypocotyl massive.

About 450 species: tropical and S Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia, NE Australia, W Polynesia, tropical America; 20 species (13 endemic, one introduced) in China.

The present authors were unable to place Garcinia qinzhouensis Y. X. Liang & Z. M. Wu (J. S. China Agric. Univ. 17(3): 56. 1996), described from Guangxi (Qinzhou), because of insufficient information.

The fruit of most species in this genus are edible, among them, those of Garcinia mangostana are famous. The seeds yield more than 15% oil. The yellow resin of some species is used as a medicine. Species like G. hanburyi J. D. Hooker provide medicinal resin and yellow dyes of the best quality. The timber of many species is used for building houses or making furniture.


1 Sepals and petals 5; stamen fascicles and fasciclodes 5, free   (2)
+ Sepals and petals 4; stamen fascicles and fasciclodes 4, free or ± united, or absent   (3)
       
2 (1) Flowers [female only known] in corymbiform cymes or fascicles in axils of fallen leaves; sepals 3 large, 2 small; berry (obliquely) globose or ovoid, apex apiculate.   1 G. xanthochymus
+ Flowers solitary or fascicled in axils of fallen leaves, or male pseudospicate; sepals 2 large, 3 small; berry broadly cylindric, apex rounded.   2 G. subelliptica
       
3 (1) Stigma in female flower and fruit (if persistent) smooth   (4)
+ Stigma in female flower and fruit (if persistent) papillose or tuberculate   (11)
       
4 (3) Inflorescence of male flowers a thyrsoid cyme or, if flowers solitary, then terminal   (5)
+ Inflorescence of male flowers a simple cyme or flowers fascicled or, if solitary, then axillary   (6)
       
5 (4) Flowers 2-3 cm in diam.; sepals 2 large, 2 small; ovary 2-loculed; female flowers 1-5.   3 G. multiflora
+ Flowers 0.8-1 cm in diam.; sepals equal; ovary 4-loculed; female flowers in thyrsoid cyme.   4 G. yunnanensis
       
6 (4) Stamen fascicles united in a ring or unlobed mass; ovary 1-loculed   (7)
+ Stamen fascicles 4 or forming a 4-lobed mass; ovary (where known) 1-10-loculed   (8)
       
7 (6) Peduncle with 2 foliar bracts at apex; stigma irregularly lobed; stipules absent.   8 G. bracteata
+ Peduncle without foliar bracts at apex; stigma entire; stipules present.   9 G. paucinervis
       
8 (6) Inflorescence terminal; flowers 1.2-1.5 cm in diam.; mature fruit 3-8 cm.   7 G. mangostana
+ Inflorescence axillary; flowers 2-4 mm in diam. or, if larger (ca. 2.3 cm), then mature fruit 2-3 cm   (9)
       
9 (8) Flowers in 6-8 or more-flowered cymes; stipules present.   11 G. nujiangensis
+ Flowers solitary or paired; stipules absent   (10)
       
10 (9) Flowers ca. 4 mm in diam.; mature fruit 1-1.5 cm; branchlets slender, pendulous.   19 G. lancilimba
+ Flowers 2.2-2.4 cm in diam.; mature fruit 2-3 cm; branchlets robust.   20 G. linii
       
11 (3) Sepal pairs equal   (12)
+ Sepal pairs unequal   (16)
       
12 (11) Sepals and pedicel purple-red.   14 G. erythrosepala
+ Sepals and pedicel greenish   (13)
       
13 (12) Fruit oblate, both ends concave, 10-18 × 11-20 cm; fruiting pedicel 5-6 cm.   5 G. pedunculata
+ Fruit globose or ovoid, less than 5 cm in diam.; fruiting pedicel shorter   (14)
       
14 (13) Fruit ovoid, oblique, 4-5 cm in diam., 4-8-sulcate, usually apiculate; fruiting pedicel short.   12 G. cowa
+ Fruit globose or ovoid, less than 3.5 cm in diam., not sulcate, not apiculate; fruiting pedicel short or subsessile   (15)
       
15 (14) Fruit globose, 2-2.5 cm in diam.; stigma 4-lobed; fruiting pedicel nearly sessile.   18 G. tetralata
+ Fruit ovoid or globose, 2-3.5 cm in diam.; stigma peltate, convex radiately 8-10-lobed; fruiting pedicel 3-7 mm.   13 G. oblongifolia
       
16 (11) Fruit orange, 6-8 × 5-9 cm, 6-8(-11)-sulcate; stigma persistent, entire, papillate; petals of male flowers 3 large and equal, inner one smallest.   17 G. esculenta
+ Fruit small, exsulcate   (17)
       
17 (16) Secondary veins of leaf 30-45 pairs, tertiary veins inconspicuous; twigs reddish brown.   10 G. kwangsiensis
+ Secondary veins of leaf less than 16 pairs, tertiary veins ± conspicuous; twigs greenish   (18)
       
18 (17) Secondary veins of leaf obscure but ± visible, to 5 pairs; fruit fusiform or narrowly ellipsoid, 1.5-1.8 cm.   15 G. oligantha
+ Secondary veins of leaf conspicuous, 7-13 pairs; fruit globose, 2-5 cm in diam   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaf blade apically long acuminate, usually falcate; stigma radiately lobed, papillate; fruit globose, ca. 3 cm in diam.; pedicel not articulate.   16 G. subfalcata
+ Leaf blade apically acute or acuminate, not falcate; stigma thick, subpapillate; fruit globose, 4-5 cm in diam.; pedicel distinctly articulate.   6 G. xishuanbannaensis

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