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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

67. Gastrodia R. Brown, Prodr. 330. 1810.

天麻属 tian ma shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale & Phillip J. Cribb

Epiphanes Blume.

Herbs terrestrial, leafless, holomycotrophic. Rhizomes horizontal, tuberous, cylindric, sometimes slightly coralloid, slightly fleshy, usually densely noded. Inflorescence erect, terminal, noded below middle, nodes with tubular or scalelike sheaths, glabrous, yellowish brown or dull brown, usually few to many flowered, rarely 1-flowered, sometimes elongating in fruit. Flowers spreading or nodding, campanulate, urceolate, or cylindric, resupinate or not, cream-brown, yellowish brown, or dull brown, occasionally greenish brown, lip often lighter brown and sometimes with orange markings; pedicel usually elongating in fruit. Sepals and petals united and forming a perianth tube, only apical portions free; perianth tube sometimes dilated and saccate at base, sometimes with a deep sinus between lateral sepals, outer surface often verrucose; petals much smaller than sepals; lip enclosed within perianth tube, adnate to apex of column foot, usually small, usually clawed at base, simple or 3-lobed; disk with a pair of globose calli at base. Column elongate, with a short but distinct column foot at base, winged toward apex, sometimes with a pair of toothlike projections at apex; anther borne on a filament, large, subterminal, incumbent; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, usually composed of friable massulae, without caudicles; stigma raised, shield-shaped. Capsule erect.

About 20 species: from NE India through the E Himalayas, across S China to Japan and E Siberia, throughout SE Asia to E Australia and the SW Pacific islands, also in tropical Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands; 15 species (nine endemic) in China.

1 Plants 2-15 cm tall in flower; perianth tube campanulate   (2)
+ Plants 10-100 cm tall in flower; perianth tube cylindric or urceolate   (6)
2 (1) Outer surface of perianth tube smooth.   11 G. pubilabiata
+ Outer surface of perianth tube verrucose   (3)
3 (2) Disk of lip with 6-8 parallel ridges.   12 G. fontinalis
+ Disk of lip unadorned or with a single forked, fleshy keel   (4)
4 (3) Lip 3-lobed, lateral lobes papillose; disk with a forked, fleshy keel.   15 G. shimizuana
+ Lip simple, glabrous; disk unadorned   (5)
5 (4) Column with an elongate, forked appendage on ventral surface.   13 G. appendiculata
+ Column lacking an appendage.   14 G. confusa
6 (1) Perianth tube cylindric, lacking a deep sinus between lateral sepals   (7)
+ Perianth tube urceolate, inflated at base, with a deep sinus between lateral sepals   (10)
7 (6) Perianth tube 16-18 mm; lobes of perianth tube not crisped.   10 G. longitubularis
+ Perianth tube 5-12 mm; lobes of perianth tube crisped   (8)
8 (7) Lip shallowly 3-lobed; disk with a fleshy longitudinal ridge.   7 G. menghaiensis
+ Lip simple, unadorned   (9)
9 (8) Lip connate with perianth tube for most of its length.   8 G. peichatieniana
+ Lip free of perianth tube.   9 G. wuyishanensis
10 (6) Disk of lip rugose and thickened, but without ridges, lamellae, or calli.   1 G. javanica
+ Disk of lip with longitudinal ridges, lamellae, or calli   (11)
11 (10) Disk of lip with a pair of fleshy reniform calli   (12)
+ Disk of lip with longitudinal ridges or lamellae   (13)
12 (11) Rachis subdensely to densely 20-50-flowered; lip obscurely 3-lobed, apical margin irregularly fimbriate; claw with a pair of gibbous foldings.   5 G. elata
+ Rachis 7-20-flowered; lip simple, apical margin entire; claw with a pair of ellipsoid calli.   6 G. flavilabella
13 (11) Lip obscurely 3-lobed; disk with 4 longitudinal ridges.   2 G. tuberculata
+ Lip simple; disk with 2 longitudinal lamellae or ridges   (14)
14 (13) Lip ovate-triangular, 5-6 mm, slightly papillose.   3 G. gracilis
+ Lip oblong-rhombic, ca. 15 mm, glabrous.   4 G. angusta

  • List of lower taxa


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