1. Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 384. 1840.
南天麻 nan tian ma
Epiphanes javanica Blume, Bijdr. 421. 1825; Gastrodia lutea Fukuyama; G. stapfii Hayata.
Plants 20-80 cm tall. Rhizome cylindric, subterete, 3-15 cm, ca. 1 cm in diam., fleshy, densely noded. Peduncle dull brown, to 60 cm, with scattered scales toward base; rachis 5-20 cm, laxly 4-18-flowered; floral bracts triangular, 3-4 mm. Flowers spreading, not resupinate, pale yellowish beige to yellowish green, lip yellowish green at base and flushed yellow at apex; pedicel and ovary 5-6 mm; pedicel not elongating in fruit. Perianth tube urceolate, ca. 10 × 13 mm, with sinus between lateral sepals extending almost to base, base inflated, outer surface smooth; free portion of sepals broadly ovate-orbicular, 2.5-3 mm, apex obtuse; free portion of petals ovate, slightly smaller than sepal lobes, apex obtuse; lip exposed by deep sinus in perianth tube, simple, rhombic-ovate, 5-7 × 5-6 mm, glabrous, base clawed, margin involute, apex acute; claw 3-4 mm, with a pair of calli; disk rugose and thickened. Column 6-8 mm, with a pair of narrow wings, yellowish white; column foot prominent, ca. 3 mm; anther ovoid. Capsule cylindric, ca. 20 mm. Fl. Jun-Jul.
Forests. N Fujian, S Taiwan [Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand].