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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 24 | Liliaceae

12. Heterosmilax Kunth, Enum. Pl. 5: 270. 1850.

肖菝葜属 xiao ba qia shu

Liang Songyun (梁松筠 Liang Song-jun); Tetsuo Koyama

Oligosmilax Seemann; Pseudosmilax Hayata.

Vines climbing, woody or somewhat herbaceous, dioecious. Stem and branches smooth, not prickly. Petiole narrowly winged basally or proximally, with a subapical abscission zone; tendrils usually present. Leaf blade usually ovate or oblong-lanceolate, main veins 5--9, outermost pair usually running along margins. Inflorescence borne in axil of leaf or scalelike bract, a solitary, many-flowered umbel; peduncle usually compressed, without a scalelike prophyll at base. Flowers small; tepals connate, forming a bottle-shaped tube with opening only at toothed apex. Male flowers: stamens 3, 6, or 9--12; filaments connate proximally or throughout, forming a column (synandrium); anthers free, introrse; connective usually projecting beyond locules. Female flowers: ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1 or 2; stigmas 3, usually recurved; staminodes 3--6. Fruit a berry, black, globose, 1--6-seeded. Seeds dark brown.

Twelve species: tropical and subtropical Asia; nine species (five endemic) in China.

1 Male flowers with 9--13 stamens.   (2)
+ Male flowers with (2 or)3(or 4) stamens.   (6)
2 (1) Stamens 1/4--1/3 as long as perianth.   (3)
+ Stamens 3/5--4/5 as long as perianth.   (4)
3 (2) Male perianth ovoid, narrowly ovoid, or suboblong, (5--)7--10 mm; filament column ca. 1 mm   4 Heterosmilax polyandra
+ Male perianth lanceolate-bottle-shaped, 11--20 mm; filament column 2--3.5 mm   5 Heterosmilax longiflora
4 (2) Male umbel 5--9-flowered; filaments connate throughout, forming a column   3 Heterosmilax yunnanensis
+ Male umbel 20--60-flowered; filaments connate only proximally, forming a column but leaving apices free.   (5)
5 (4) Male perianth 4--8 mm; peduncle 5--40 mm   1 Heterosmilax septemnervia
+ Male perianth 2.5--3 mm; peduncle 32--55 mm   2 Heterosmilax seisuiensis
6 (1) Stem, branches, and petiole pubescent, rarely glabrescent; male perianth oblong, teeth acute at apex   6 Heterosmilax chinensis
+ Stem, branches, and petiole glabrous; male perianth subobovoid, teeth obtuse at apex.   (7)
7 (6) Male filaments connate only proximally, forming a column but leaving apices free   7 Heterosmilax japonica
+ Male filaments connate throughout, forming a column.   (8)
8 (7) Male perianth 4--4.5 mm, apically 3-dentate; female perianth 3.7--4 mm   8 Heterosmilax gaudichaudiana
+ Male perianth 3--3.5 mm, apically scarcely dentate and subtruncate; female perianth ca. 2.3 mm   9 Heterosmilax micrandra

Lower Taxa


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