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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Rosaceae

23. MALUS Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. [835]. 1754.

苹果属 ping guo shu

Gu Cuizhi (Ku Tsue-chih); Stephen A. Spongberg

Trees or shrubs, deciduous or semievergreen, usually unarmed; buds ovoid, with several imbricate scales. Leaves alternate, simple, petiolate, stipulate, venation craspedodromous or camptodromous and merely toothed, margin serrate or lobed, folded or convolute in bud. Inflorescences corymbose-racemose. Flowers pedicellate. Hypanthium bowl-shaped. Sepals 5, persistent or caducous. Petals 5, white, pink, or red, suborbicular or obovate. Stamens 15–50, with white filaments and yellow anthers. Ovary inferior, 3–5-loculed, with 2 ovules in each cell; styles 3–5, connate at base, glabrous or pubescent. Pome usually not containing stone-cells or present in a few species, 3–5-loculed, 1- or 2-seeded in each cell, with cartilaginous endocarp (core). Seeds brown or black, cotyledons plano-convex.

About 55 species: widely distributed in N temperate zone; 25 species (15 endemic) in China.

1 Leaf blade not lobed, convolute in bud; pome without stone cells.   (2)
+ Leaf blade usually lobed, rarely not lobed, folded in bud; pome without or with few stone-cells.   (16)
2 (1) Sepals caducous in fruit; styles 3–5; pome usually less than 1.5 cm in diam.   (3)
+ Sepals persistent in fruit; styles (4 or)5; pome larger, usually more than 2 cm in diam.   (11)
3 (2) Sepals triangular-ovate, ca. as long as or slightly shorter than hypanthium.   (4)
+ Sepals lanceolate, longer than hypanthium.   (6)
4 (3) Hypanthium, sepals, branchlets, petiole, and pedicel tomentose.   8 M. daochengensis
+ Hypanthium and sepals abaxially glabrous; branchlets, petiole, and pedicel slightly pubescent when young, soon glabrescent.   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade acutely serrulate; sepals apically acuminate or acute; styles 3, rarely 4; pome ellipsoid to subglobose.   6 M. hupehensis
+ Leaf blade obtusely serrulate; sepals apically obtuse; styles 4 or 5; pome pyriform or obovoid.   7 M. halliana
6 (3) Branchlets glabrous or puberulous; leaf blade initially puberulous, glabrescent or subglabrous later.   (7)
+ Branchlets and leaf blade abaxially often tomentose or pubescent.   (9)
7 (6) Petiole, leaf veins, pedicel, and hypanthium often sparsely pubescent; pome ellipsoid or obovoid.   3 M. manshurica
+ Petiole, leaf veins, pedicel, and hypanthium glabrous; pome subglobose or obovoid.   (8)
8 (7) Sepals lanceolate, apex long acuminate; styles 5 or 4, basally densely villous, pome subglobose with an obscure small scar at apex.   1 M. baccata
+ Sepals ovate, apex caudate, rarely acuminate; styles (3 or)4, basally slightly pilose or glabrous, pome obovoid, with a large scar at apex.   2 M. jinxianensis
9 (6) Styles basally glabrous, pome obovoid or pyriform, white punctate; leaf blade abaxially densely tomentose.   4 M. sikkimensis
+ Styles basally pubescent or glabrous, pome subglobose, not punctate; leaf blade abaxially pubescent.   (10)
10 (9) Leaf margin adpressed serrate, blade abaxially densely puberulous, base rounded or broadly cuneate; petals white but pink abaxially; pome ovoid or subglobose, slightly convex at apex, sepals caducous.   5 M. rockii
+ Leaf margin acutely serrate, blade abaxially pubescent when young, glabrescent, base cuneate; petals pink; pome subglobose, impressed at apex, sepals caducous or persistent.   14 M. ×micromalus
11 (2) Sepals apically acute, shorter than or ca. as long as hypanthium.   (12)
+ Sepals apically acuminate, longer than hypanthium.   (13)
12 (11) Leaf base broadly cuneate or subrounded; petiole 1.5–2 cm, pome yellow, without cavity at base; sepals persistent.   13 M. spectabilis
+ Leaf base cuneate; petiole 2–3.5 cm; pome red with cavity at base; sepals caducous or persistent.   14 M. ×micromalus
13 (11) Leaf margin obtusely serrate; pome depressed-globose or globose, often projected at apex.   (14)
+ Leaf margin often acutely serrate; pome ovoid, attenuate at apex, not or slightly projected at apex.   (15)
14 (13) Cultivated species; pome large, with short pedicel; leaf blade serrate; branchlets, buds, and leaves with many hairs.   9 M. pumila
+ Native species; pome small, with long pedicel, leaf blade serrulate; branchlets, buds, and leaves with few hairs.   10 M. sieversii
15 (13) Pome large, 4–5 cm in diam., with 1.5–2 cm pedicel; leaf blade abaxially densely puberulous.   11 M. asiatica
+ Pome smaller, 2–2.5 cm in diam., with 3.2–3.5 cm pedicel; leaf blade abaxially puberulous or subglabrous only along veins.   12 M. prunifolia
16 (1) Sepals caducous.   (17)
+ Sepals persistent.   (21)
17 (16) Styles basally villous; pome subglobose.   15 M. sieboldii
+ Styles basally glabrous; pome ellipsoid or obovoid, rarely subglobose.   (18)
18 (17) Leaf blade often 3–5-lobed, doubly serrate at margin; pome with few stone cells.   (19)
+ Leaf blade 3–5-parted, not doubly serrate at margin; pome without stone cells.   (20)
19 (18) Lobes of leaf blade triangular-ovate; leaf blade rounded or truncate at base; fruiting pedicel 2–3.5 cm.   16 M. kansuensis
+ Lobes of leaf blade oblong-ovate; leaf blade cordate or subcordate at base; fruiting pedicel 1.2–1.5 cm.   17 M. komarovii
20 (18) Young branches puberulous, soon glabrescent; leaf blade undivided or sometimes parted, both surfaces pubescent; flower 2–2.5 cm in diam.   18 M. toringoides
+ Young branches tomentose; leaf blade parted, tomentose on both surfaces; flowers 1.5–2 cm in diam.   19 M. transitoria
21 (16) Pome projected at apex, core separated.   (22)
+ Pome with cupular cavity at apex, core not separated.   (23)
22 (21) Pedicel, hypanthium, and sepals abaxially tomentose.   24 M. doumeri
+ Pedicel, hypanthium, and sepals abaxially glabrous.   25 M. leiocalyca
23 (21) Leaf margin not lobed; inflorescence subcorymbiform.   (24)
+ Leaf margin 3–6-lobed, acutely doubly serrate; inflorescence subracemose.   (25)
24 (23) Leaf margin serrulate, abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulous; pome 1–1.5 cm in diam.; fruiting pedicel glabrous.   20 M. prattii
+ Leaf margin doubly serrate, abaxially tomentose; pome 1.5–2 cm in diam.; fruiting pedicel villous.   21 M. ombrophila
25 (23) Styles 3 or 4; leaf blade abaxially puberulous; hypanthium and pedicel sparsely pubescent.   22 M. honanensis
+ Styles 5; leaf blade abaxially tomentose; hypanthium and pedicel tomentose.   23 M. yunnanensis

  • List of lower taxa


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