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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Oleaceae

5. Osmanthus Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 28. 1790.

木犀属 mu xi shu

Shrubs to small trees, evergreen. Leaves opposite, simple, petiolate; leaf blade entire or serrate, usually glandular dotted. Inflorescences cymose, fascicled in leaf axils or in very short and axillary or terminal panicles; bracts 2, united at base, usually ciliate. Flowers bisexual, usually becoming unisexual and plants dioecious or androdioecious. Calyx campanulate, 4-lobed. Corolla usually white or yellowish, campanulate, cylindric, or urceolate, lobed, parted, or divided almost to base; lobes 4, imbricate in bud. Stamens 2(-4), mostly attached to upper half of corolla tube; connective usually minutely mucronate, elongated, or projecting. Ovules 2 in each locule, pendulous. Stigma capitate or 2-cleft. Abortive pistil subulate or conical. Fruit a drupe; endocarp hard or bony; endosperm fleshy; radicle erect.

About 30 species: SE Asia and America; 23 species in China.

Two species have been described from Taiwan of which no material has been seen in the preparation of this account: Osmanthus acutus Masamune & K. Mori (O. heterophyllus var. acutus (Masamune & K. Mori) T. S. Liu & J. C. Liao) and O. kaoi (T. S. Liu & J. C. Liao) S. Y. Lu (O. lanceolatus var. kaoi T. S. Liu & J. C. Liao). Osmanthus dinggyensis P. Y. Bai, described from Xizang, is Ilex hookeri King.

The flowers are fragrant in all species; Osmanthus fragrans is a well-known spice plant.

1 Cymes in very short panicles, axillary or terminal; anther connective not elongated or projecting.   (2)
+ Cymes fascicled in leaf axils; anther connective usually elongated or projecting.   (4)
2 (1) Leaf blade thick leathery, broadly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, base cuneate or broadly so; inflorescences compact   1 Osmanthus marginatus
+ Leaf blade papery or leathery, narrowly elliptic, oblanceolate, to narrowly obovate, base attenuate; inflorescences loose.   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade oblanceolate, rarely obovate or narrowly elliptic, 8-14(-19) × 2.5-4.5(-6) cm, usually serrate in distal half; petiole 1.5-3 cm   2 Osmanthus matsumuranus
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, rarely oblanceolate, 4.5-9 × 1.5-3.5 cm, entire; petiole 1-1.5 cm   3 Osmanthus minor
4 (1) Corolla lobes united in pairs at base, not forming a tube   4 Osmanthus didymopetalus
+ Corolla lobes united at base into a tube.   (5)
5 (4) Corolla tube much longer than lobes, cylindric.   (6)
+ Corolla tube subequalling or shorter than lobes, if longer, then tube urceolate.   (7)
6 (5) Leaf blade usually elliptic, 3-7 cm, obtusely serrate at margin   5 Osmanthus suavis
+ Leaf blade oblong, broadly elliptic, or broadly ovate, 1-2.5(-4) cm, sharply serrate at margin   6 Osmanthus delavayi
7 (5) Branchlets, petiole, and adaxial surface of midrib ± hairy.   (8)
+ Branchlets, petiole, and midrib usually glabrous.   (15)
8 (7) Pedicel puberulent   7 Osmanthus pubipedicellatus
+ Pedicel glabrous.   (9)
9 (8) Corolla lobes longer than or rarely equal to tube.   (10)
+ Corolla lobes subequalling or rarely shorter than tube.   (11)
10 (9) Leaf blade oblong-elliptic or elliptic, usually with 3 or 4 pairs of spiny teeth; stamens attached to base of corolla tube   8 Osmanthus heterophyllus
+ Leaf blade elliptic to oblanceolate, entire or if serrate, then with ca. 20 pairs of dentate-serrate teeth on each side; stamens attached to middle of corolla tube   9 Osmanthus henryi
11 (9) Corolla urceolate, lobes shorter than tube   10 Osmanthus urceolatus
+ Corolla not urceolate, lobes almost as long as tube.   (12)
12 (11) Leaf blade dentate or serrate, if entire then veins obviously raised and reticulate.   (13)
+ Leaf blade entire.   (14)
13 (12) Petiole 2-5 mm; leaf blade usually with 6-10(-17) pairs of spiny teeth, base ± rounded to subcordate, rarely broadly cuneate   11 Osmanthus armatus
+ Petiole 10-15 mm; leaf blade entire or with 3 or 4 pairs of serrations, base cuneate to blunt   12 Osmanthus venosus
14 (12) Leaf blade elliptic or obovate, ca. 2 × as long as broad, base broadly cuneate to rounded   13 Osmanthus cooperi
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, ca. 4 × as long as broad, base narrowly cuneate   14 Osmanthus attenuatus
15 (7) Bracts hairy or at least ciliate.   (16)
+ Bracts glabrous.   (18)
16 (15) Leaf venation neither reticulate nor raised; bracts hirsute   17 Osmanthus enervius
+ Leaf venation reticulate or distinctly raised; bracts ciliate.   (17)
17 (16) Leaf blade usually ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, serrulations (when present) 2-3 mm   15 Osmanthus yunnanensis
+ Leaf blade obovate-lanceolate or obovate-elliptic to elliptic, serrulations (when present) 1 mm   16 Osmanthus serrulatus
18 (15) Calyx less than 1 mm; leaf blade less than 6 cm   18 Osmanthus fordii
+ Calyx ca. 1 mm; leaf blade usually more than 6 cm.   (19)
19 (18) Corolla lobes more than 2 × as long as tube; leaf veins not reticulate, primary veins impressed adaxially   19 Osmanthus fragrans
+ Corolla lobes subequal to ca. 2 × as long as tube.   (20)
20 (19) Leaf venation neither reticulate nor raised, blade elliptic or narrowly so   20 Osmanthus gracilinervis
+ Leaf venation reticulate or raised, blade elliptic to lanceolate or narrowly ovate.   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blade lanceolate; stamens attached to distal part of corolla tube   21 Osmanthus lanceolatus
+ Leaf blade narrowly ovate, elliptic, oblong, or oblanceolate; stamens attached to middle or basal part of corolla tube.   (22)
22 (21) Stamens attached to middle of corolla tube; leaf venation reticulate, veins obvious and raised   22 Osmanthus reticulatus
+ Stamens attached to basal part of corolla tube; leaf venation obscure, reticulate but primary veins raised   23 Osmanthus hainanensis

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