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8. Pseudostellaria Pax, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2. 16c: 318. 1934.

孩儿参属 hai er shen shu

Lu Dequan; Richard K. Rabeler

Krascheninikovia Turczaninow ex Fenzl in Endlicher, Gen. Pl. 968. 1840, not Gueldenstaedt (1772).

Herbs perennial. Root tubers fusiform, ovoid or subglobose. Stems erect or ascending, sometimes repent. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate; stipules absent. Flowers of two types. Chasmogamic flowers larger, solitary in distal leaf axils or in terminal cymes, bracts immediately subtending calyx absent, pedicel longer, usually without fruit; sepals (4 or)5; petals (4 or)5, white, entire or emarginate; stamens (8 or)10; ovary globose or ovoid, 1-loculed, ovules numerous; styles (2 or)3; stigma capitate. Cleistogamic flowers smaller, on stem in proximal leaf axils, shortly pedicellate or subsessile; sepals 4(or 5); petals very small, membranous, or absent; stamens reduced, rarely 2; ovary globose or ovoid, 1-loculed, ovules numerous; styles 2 or 3. Capsule (2 or) 3(or 4)-valved. Seeds few, large, somewhat flattened, tuberculate or smooth; embryo curved.

About 18 species: E and N Asia, one species in Europe, two species in North America; nine species (two endemic) in China.

1 All leaves linear, lanceolate-linear, or ovate-lanceolate.   (2)
+ Middle and distal leaves ovate, broadly ovate, ovate-oblong, or oblong.   (3)
2 (1) Stems 15--25 cm tall; leaves linear or lanceolate-linear, 3--5(--7) cm × 2--3(--5) mm; seeds with awned tubercles   1 P. sylvatica
+ Stems 5--10 cm tall; leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1--3 cm × 3--8 mm; seeds with anchor-shaped barbs   2 P. rupestris
3 (1) Leaves rounded at base, subsessile; seeds mammillate, with pointed mammillae.   (4)
+ Leaves attenuate at base into petiole; seeds tuberculate or not.   (5)
4 (3) Stems repent, procumbent to 50 cm; capsule 4-valved; seeds with non-bristly protuberances   3 P. davidii
+ Stems erect, 15--20 cm tall; capsule 3-valved; seeds with bristly protuberances   4 P. japonica
5 (3) Chasmogamic flowers with sepals 4, petals 4, stamens 8; seeds tuberculate, apex of tubercles with one short hair   5 P. helanshanensis
+ Chasmogamic flowers with sepals 5, petals 5, stamens 10; seeds tuberculate or not.   (6)
6 (5) Stems with apical 2(or 3) pairs of leaves larger, approximate, decussate, broadly ovate   8 P. heterophylla
+ Stems not as above.   (7)
7 (6) Chasmogamic flowers with sepals glabrous; cleistogamic flowers subsessile; leaves ovate or oblong   9 P. tibetica
+ Chasmogamic flowers with sepals abaxially pubescent; cleistogamic flowers shortly pedicellate; distal middle leaves ovate-oblong.   (8)
8 (7) Capsules 2--3 mm; seeds without protuberances   6 P. himalaica
+ Capsules 3.5--4 mm; seeds tuberculate   7 P. heterantha

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