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51. Scorzonera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 790. 1753.

鸦葱属 ya cong shu

Authors: Zhu Shi & Norbert Kilian

Lasiospora Cassini; Takhtajaniantha E. A. Nazarova.

Herbs, perennial [or annual], rarely subshrubs, often with woody caudex and rosulate. Leaves usually linear to linear-elliptic or lanceolate, more rarely also ovate, with parallel veins, not divided, base with semiamplexicaul usually persistent sheath, margin entire, flat, or sometimes undulate. Involucre cylindric to campanulate, usually very conspicuously prolonged toward fruiting. Phyllaries in few to several series, imbricate, often (especially inner phyllaries) with scarious margin; longest outer phyllaries usually to more than 1/2 as long as and often ± approaching inner phyllaries in length; inner phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow (and often pinkish on drying) or rarely orange or pale purple, 1.1-2 × as long as involucre. Achene ± cylindric to columnar, with numerous smooth or tuberculate longitudinal ribs, glabrous, puberulent, or villous along entire length or apically only, apex truncate or more rarely attenuate. Pappus of strong bristles, persistent or caducous, a few often distinctly longer than remainder; bristles softly fimbriately plumose for most of length and apically scabrid.

About 180 species: N Africa, Asia, Europe; 24 species (four endemic) in China.

Even after exclusion of Podospermum and Epilasia, Scorzonera is still polyphyletic (Mavrodiev et al., Taxon 53: 699-712. 2004). Because a more detailed phylogenetic study and revision of Scorzonera s.l. is not yet available, and the circumscription of its diverse elements therefore not clear, the genus is treated here in this wider sense still including Takhtajaniantha and Lasiospora.

1 Perennial herbs or subshrubs, often hemispheric; stems usually basally woody, virgate, repeatedly divaricately branched; basal leaves early deciduous; stem leaves linear to filiform and small, or larger and spreading   (2)
+ Perennial herbs, never hemispheric; stems herbaceous, unbranched or rather weakly branched; basal leaves usually present; stem leaves present or absent, of various shapes   (3)
2 (1) Caudex with scarious leaf sheath residues; stem leaves inconspicuous, to 10 mm; capitula with 4 or 5 florets.   1 S. divaricata
+ Caudex with fibrous and lacerate leaf sheath residues; stem leaves conspicuous, horizontally spreading to spreading-erect, 1-9 cm; capitula with 7-12 florets.   2 S. pseudodivaricata
3 (1) Caudex with conspicuous dark brown fibrous and lacerate leaf sheath residues   (4)
+ Caudex with smooth, usually scarious, rarely with age lacerate or somewhat fibrous but never dark brown fibrous leaf sheath residues, or without leaf sheath residues   (9)
4 (3) Leaves filiform to filiform-linear, 1-1.5 mm wide, almost somewhat curled, glaucous.   10 S. curvata
+ Leaves not filiform to filiform-linear, 2 mm or more wide, ± straight, green   (5)
5 (4) Ovary and achene shortly villous along their entire length   (6)
+ Ovary and achene glabrous   (7)
6 (5) Leaves 2-15 mm wide, margin undulate; plants glabrous; achene ca. 10 mm.   11 S. ikonnikovii
+ Leaves 3-4 mm wide, margin flat; leaves, stems, and phyllaries floccose or lanate when young, soon glabrescent; achene 7-8 mm.   12 S. manshurica
7 (5) Stem (especially apically) and involucre basally floccose arachnoid hairy; leaves 2-4 mm wide.   9 S. subacaulis
+ Plants usually glabrous (occasionally leaf sheath margin or apical phyllary margin arachnoid hairy); leaves sometimes as narrow as 2 mm wide, otherwise 0.5-3(-4.5) cm wide   (8)
8 (7) Basal leaves often rather narrow (linear, linear-lanceolate, or linear-elliptic), margin usually flat.   7 S. austriaca
+ Basal leaves often rather broad (broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate, oblanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, linear-elliptic, or linear), margin undulate.   8 S. sinensis
9 (3) Ovary and achene densely villous along their entire length   (10)
+ Ovary and achene glabrous or at most ± villous at pappus disk   (12)
10 (9) Leaves usually 0.8-1.5 cm wide, leaf blade margin densely undulate; plants with globose tuber some cm below surface.   24 S. circumflexa
+ Leaves usually 2-8 mm wide, leaf blade margin flat; plants with or without globose tuber   (11)
11 (10) Plants without tuber, to 40 cm tall; pappus 2-2.5 cm.   22 S. ensifolia
+ Plants with tuber some cm below surface, to 20 cm tall; pappus less than 1.5 cm.   23 S. sericeolanata
12 (9) Stems leafless, sparsely leaved, or with reduced leaves, with 1 or few single-capitellate branches, or plants subacaulescent   (13)
+ Stems leafy, well developed, and usually branched at least basally   (16)
13 (12) Caudex conspicuously dirty white lanate of adaxially thickly lanate leaf sheath residues; leaves broadly lanceolate to ovate, at least in part usually more than 2 cm wide.   3 S. capito
+ Caudex not lanate, leaf sheaths adaxially glabrous; leaves at most ca. 1.5 cm wide   (14)
14 (13) Involucre, base of involucre, and sometimes leaves somewhat arachnoid hairy; florets ca. 2 × as long as involucre.   6 S. radiata
+ Plants entirely glabrous; florets less than 1.5 × as long as involucre   (15)
15 (14) Leaves lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic to linear, 2-15 mm wide.   4 S. parviflora
+ Leaves linear, 1-2 mm wide.   5 S. luntaiensis
16 (12) Plants of saline soil, glabrous (but leaf sheaths adaxially often lanate) and grayish to glaucous green; leaves ± fleshy, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate; stem leaves often partly opposite.   21 S. mongolica
+ Plants not of saline soil, glabrous and fresh green or with indumentum; leaves not fleshy, variously shaped; stem leaves always alternate   (17)
17 (16) Plants with tuber some cm below surface, to 20(-40) cm tall; leaves 1-3 mm wide   (18)
+ Plants without tuber, taller than above; leaves usually wider than above   (20)
18 (17) Plants 30-40 cm tall; involucre 2-2.4 cm at anthesis.   20 S. aniana
+ Plants to 20 cm tall; involucre 1.3-1.8 cm at anthesis   (19)
19 (18) Caudex with adaxially lanate leaf sheath residues; involucre ca. 1.8 cm at anthesis; pappus bristles plumose for most of length.   18 S. pusilla
+ Caudex with glabrous leaf sheath residues; involucre 1.3-1.5 cm at anthesis; pappus bristles scabrid for most of length.   19 S. pamirica
20 (17) Involucre from at least 2 cm at anthesis, to 4 cm in fruit; achene 1.7-2.3 cm, apically conspicuously long attenuate; pappus caducous as an entity.   13 S. albicaulis
+ Involucre to 2 cm at anthesis, not more than ca. 3 cm in fruit; achene not more than 1.5 cm, apically not conspicuously attenuate; pappus persistent   (21)
21 (20) Florets slightly longer than involucre; plants entirely glabrous; achene 7-9 mm.   4 S. parviflora
+ Florets distinctly longer than involucre (usually ca. 1.5 × as long as involucre); stem, leaves, or involucre with short branched, dendritic or stellate hairs; achene 1-1.5 cm   (22)
22 (21) Plants with weak, ascending-erect stems to at most 30 cm tall, usually branched already near base; achene with tuberculate ribs   (23)
+ Plants with strong erect stems to 75 cm tall, usually branched apically; achene with smooth ribs   (24)
23 (22) Plants with conspicuous gray indumentum; leaves linear, 1-5 mm wide, with flat margin.   16 S. pubescens
+ Plants stellate puberulent, glabrescent; leaves narrowly lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 4-7 mm wide, with mostly undulate margin.   17 S. inconspicua
24 (22) Florets yellow.   14 S. iliensis
+ Florets deep orange.   15 S. transiliensis

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