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42. Sophora Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 373. 1753.

槐属 huai shu

Authors: Bojian Bao & Michael A. Vincent

Ammothamnus Bunge; Cephalostigmaton Yakovlev; Edwardsia Salisbury; Goebelia Bunge ex Boissier; Keyserlingia Bunge ex Boissier; Styphnolobium Schott; Vexibia Rafinesque.

Deciduous or evergreen trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs, rarely twining. Leaves imparipinnate; stipules present or absent; leaflets many, entire, rarely with stipels. Racemes terminal or axillary. Flowers white, yellow, or purple; bracts small and linear or absent. Calyx campanulate or cup-shaped, 5-lobed, equal, upper 2 lobes nearly bilabiate. Standard orbicular, oblong, elliptic, obovate, or oblanceolate; wings asymmetric or symmetric; keel similar to wings. Stamens 10, free or fused at base; anthers ver­satile. Ovary stalk short or absent; ovules several to many; stigma small, terminal, globose. Legumes cylindric, moniliform, fleshy or leathery, sometimes winged, indehiscent or tardily dehiscent. Seeds 1 to many, ovate, elliptic, or subspheroidal, black, dark brown, or light red.

About 70 species: widespread in tropical and temperate zones; 21 species (nine endemic, one introduced) in China.

1 Trees, rarely shrubs; petiole base inflated, covering caducous bud stipules; stipels present; inflorescence paniculate   (2)
+ Small trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs; petioles not inflated at base, buds exposed; stipules present or absent; stipels absent; inflorescence racemose   (3)
2 (1) Ovary almost equal to stamens in length; legume linear, slightly constricted between seeds; seeds closely spaced.   20 S. japonica
+ Ovary obviously shorter than stamens in length; legume thick, obviously constricted between seeds; seeds more distantly spaced.   21 S. brachygyna
3 (1) Herbs or subshrubs; flowers white to creamy white; raceme terminal   (4)
+ Small trees, shrubs, or climbing shrubs; flowers white-yellow or purple, or, if herbs, flowers yellow; inflorescence terminal, opposite or alternate with leaves   (6)
4 (3) Legume indehiscent, seeds 2 per loment section; leaflets small, (3.5-)15-20(-27) × (2-)3-7 mm.   19 S. pachycarpa
+ Legume tardily dehiscent, seed 1 per loment section; leaflets large, 1.5-6 × 1-2 cm   (5)
5 (4) Branches and leaflets densely hairy; flowers in dense racemes; keel mucronate at apex.   10 S. alopecuroides
+ Branches and leaflets glabrous or pilose when young; flowers in lax racemes; keel obtuse at apex.   11 S. flavescens
6 (3) Plants spiny; stipules spinescent   (7)
+ Plants without spines; stipules not spinescent   (8)
7 (6) Stems villous; flower ca. 2 cm, blue-purple.   8 S. moorcroftiana
+ Stems glabrous; flower ca. 1.5 cm, white or creamy white, rarely blue-purple.   9 S. davidii
8 (6) Legume winged; plants flowering before leaves expand; some terminal leaflets changed to tendrils.   12 S. mollis
+ Legume wingless; plants flowering after leaves expand; terminal leaflets normal   (9)
9 (8) Stipules absent or very small   (10)
+ Stipules subulate, 4-10 mm   (12)
10 (9) Legume slightly curved; leaflets obviously smaller toward base; stipules very small; standard shorter than other petals.   7 S. tonkinensis
+ Legume straight; leaflets not obviously smaller toward base; stipules absent; standard equal to other petals   (11)
11 (10) Shrubs or small trees, 2-4 m tall; leaflets large, 2.5-5 × 2-3.5 cm; flowers large, ca. 15 mm, yellow or creamy white.   13 S. tomentosa
+ Subshrubs, 0.2-1 m tall; leaflets small, 1-2.5 × 0.7-1.5 cm; flowers small, ca. 10 mm, purple.   18 S. praetorulosa
12 (9) Legume dehiscent into 4 limbs; calyx compressed campanulate or cup-shaped, teeth small or not obvious   (13)
+ Legume dehiscent into 2 limbs; calyx campanulate, teeth obvious, unequal   (16)
13 (12) Leaflet veins not obvious adaxially; seed 1 per legume, gray-brown   (14)
+ Leaflet veins obvious adaxially; seeds 2-4 per legume, red   (15)
14 (13) Inflorescence terminal; leaflets oblong or ovate-oblong, reflexed at margin; corolla ca. 10 mm.   14 S. franchetiana
+ Inflorescence alternate or opposite a leaf; leaflets ovate or ovate-elliptic, not reflexed at margin; corolla ca. 15 mm.   15 S. wilsonii
15 (13) Leaflets papery to nearly leathery, ovate-elliptic, ovate, or long elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate at apex.   16 S. prazeri
+ Leaflets papery, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, long acuminate or caudate-acuminate at apex.   17 S. benthamii
16 (12) Leaflets small, less than 20 mm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, densely long hairy on both surfaces.   4 S. yunnanensis
+ Leaflets large, (15-)20-40(-50) mm, usually ovate-lanceolate, or other shapes except ovate and elliptic-ovate, pilose adaxially or glabrous   (17)
17 (16) Inflorescence terminal, rarely opposite a leaf; flowers dense, yellow; seeds green.   6 S. xanthoantha
+ Inflorescence opposite a leaf, pseudo-terminal or axillary; flowers sparse, white or purple-red; seeds yellow, yellow-brown, or red-brown   (18)
18 (17) Flowers white; seeds long ovoid, 7-8 mm.   5 S. albescens
+ Flowers purple-red; seeds oblong or long ovate, 5-9 mm   (19)
19 (18) Fine veins on leaflets impressed adaxially; seeds long ovate, 5-6 mm.   2 S. dunnii
+ Fine veins on leaflets not impressed adaxially; seeds oblong, elliptic, or long ovate, 6-9 mm   (20)
20 (19) Legume slender; seeds long ovate or elliptic, ends rounded, 6-7 mm.   3 S. microcarpa
+ Legume thick, slightly compressed; seeds oblong-reniform, ends acute to rounded, 7-9 mm, yellow or yellow-brown.   1 S. velutina

  • List of lower taxa


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