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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Combretaceae

2. Terminalia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12. 2: 665, 674 ["638"]; Mant. Pl. 1: 21, 128. 1767.

诃子属 he zi shu

Adamaram Adanson; Badamia Gaertner; Buceras P. Browne; Bucida Linnaeus, nom. cons.; Myrobalanus Gaertner; Pentaptera Roxburgh.

Trees, often very large and buttressed, rarely shrubs. Branches often in tiers. Leaves spiraled, alternate, subopposite, or opposite, often crowded into pseudowhorls at apices of branchlets; leaf blade oblong, elliptic, obovate, or orbicular, hairy or glabrous, often minutely verruculose and translucent dotted (from calcium oxalate crystals), often with domatia, often with 2 or more glands at or above leaf blade base or on petiole. Inflorescences axillary or terminal spikes or racemes, sometimes panicles, with bisexual flowers toward base of inflorescence and male flowers toward apex. Calyx tube proximally broadly cylindric to ellipsoid or ovoid, distally cupular or sometimes scarcely developed; lobes 4 or 5, deltoid or ovate. Petals absent. Stamens 8 or 10. Fruit variable in size and shape, often fleshy and drupelike, sometimes dry and leathery or corky, often longitudinally 2-5-winged, or -ridged, sometimes weakly so; endocarp usually at least partly sclerenchymatous.

About 150 species: tropics of Africa, America, and Asia, extending to S Africa, Australia, and Pacific islands; six species in China.

The following species have been recorded as cultivated in China. Two species have fruit with 5 broad wings: Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth (T. tomentosa (Roxburgh) Wight & Arnott; Pentaptera tomentosa Roxburgh), from India to Vietnam, has been recorded from Guangdong (Guangzhou); T. arjuna (Roxburgh ex Candolle) Wight & Arnott (P. arjuna Roxburgh ex Candolle), from India, has been recorded from Fujian (Xiamen), Guangdong (Dinghu Shan, Guangzhou, Hong Kong), and Guangxi. These two species may be distinguished by their fruit: T. alata has fruit ovoid, ca. 3 cm, with wings not or scarcely extending beyond the apex, whereas T. arjuna has fruit obovoid, ca. 5 cm, with wings obviously extending beyond the apex. Terminalia muelleri Bentham (Myrobalanus muelleri (Bentham) Kuntze), from Australia, is similar to T. catappa but with fruit only ca. 1.6 cm; it has been recorded from Guangdong (Guangzhou). In addition, T. mantaly H. Perrier, from Madagascar, with small, cuneate-oblanceolate leaves 5-7 cm and short spikes 4-5 cm, has been recorded as a street tree in Taiwan (Taizhong).


1 Fruit 2- or 3-winged (or plants cultivated; fruit 5-winged: see T. alata and T. arjuna above)   (2)
+ Fruit 2- or 5-ridged, sometimes weakly so, sometimes narrowly 2-winged (and then fruit 3-5.5 cm: T. catappa)   (4)
       
2 (1) Fruit 3-winged, (1.5-)2-3.5 × (1-)1.5-2 cm, glabrous; glands absent at petiole apex or leaf blade base.   1 T. nigrovenulosa
+ Fruit 2- or 3-winged, 0.3-1 cm, sparsely pubescent to densely villous; 2 glands present at petiole apex or leaf blade base   (3)
       
3 (2) Trees evergreen, to 35 m tall, often buttressed, to 2.8 m d.b.h.; leaf blade 10-25(-30) cm, 2-4 × as long as wide; fruit wider than long, 2-winged, sometimes also with 1 rudimentary wing between wings.   2 T. myriocarpa
+ Shrubs or trees deciduous, 0.6-10 m tall; leaf blade 1.5-6.5(-11) cm, 1-2 × as long as wide; fruit longer than wide, 3-winged.   3 T. franchetii
       
4 (1) Leaves spaced along branchlets, leaf blade elliptic; fruit obtusely 5-ridged, glabrous.   4 T. chebula
+ Leaves crowded into pseudowhorls at apices of branchlets, leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate; fruit 5-ridged and then velutinous or sericeous, or 2-ridged or -winged and then glabrous   (5)
       
5 (4) Fruit subglobose to broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, weakly to strongly 5-ridged, 2-3 cm, densely and finely velutinous or sericeous; leaf blade obovate, base obtuse-rounded or attenuate, lateral veins in 5-8 pairs; petiole 3-9 cm.   5 T. bellirica
+ Fruit ellipsoid, slightly to strongly compressed, strongly 2-ridged to narrowly 2-winged, 3-5.5 cm, glabrous; leaf blade obovate to oblanceolate, narrowed in proximal half toward a narrow, cordate or truncate base, lateral veins in 10-12 pairs; petiole 0.5-2 cm (or plants cultivated; fruit ca. 1.6 cm: see T. muelleri above).   6 T. catappa

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