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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Anacardiaceae

14. Toxicodendron Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1754.

漆树属 qi shu shu

Deciduous shrubs or trees, rarely a woody climber, with white latex in phloem, turning black upon air exposure, polygamous or dioecious. Leaves imparipinnately compound, 3-foliolate or simple. Inflorescence axillary, paniculate or racemose, often pendulous at fructification; floral subtending bracts deciduous. Flowers functionally unisexual or bisexual, 5-merous. Ovary 1-locular and 1-ovulate; styles 3, often united basally. Drupe subglobose or oblique, glabrous or minutely pubescent to hirsute, never glandular pubescent; exocarp thin, yellow, dehiscent or indehiscent at maturity; mesocarp white waxy, with brown longitudinal resin ducts.

About 20 species: disjunctly distributed in E Asia and North America; 16 species (six endemic) in China.

The hardened resin produced in the phloem of Toxicodendron succedaneum (Japanese lacquer tree) and T. vernicifluum (varnish tree) is used for decoration of traditional handicrafts. The resinous effluvia are poisonous and may cause severe dermatitis in sensitized persons.

1 Woody climbers; leaf blade 3-foliolate; stamens equal to petals in length.   1 T. radicans subsp. hispidum
+ Trees or shrubs; leaf blade imparipinnately compound; stamens exserted   (2)
2 (1) Branchlets, petiole, and leaf rachis robust; infructescence erect; drupe minutely pubescent, fruit epicarp irregularly dehiscent at maturity   (3)
+ Branchlets, petiole, and leaf rachis slender; infructescence pendulous; drupe glabrous or rarely bristly, fruit epicarp indehiscent at maturity   (6)
3 (2) Leaflets glabrous or minutely pubescent abaxially along midnerve.   2 T. griffithii
+ Leaflets ferruginous tomentose   (4)
4 (3) Petiole, leaf rachis, and inflorescence glabrous.   3 T. hookeri var. microcarpum
+ Petiole, leaf rachis, and inflorescence ferruginous pubescent   (5)
5 (4) Leaflets oblong, veinlets slightly impressed adaxially; inflorescence peduncle ca. 20 cm.   4 T. fulvum
+ Leaflets ovate to oblong-elliptic, veinlets slightly prominent adaxially; inflorescence peduncle 3-9 cm.   5 T. wallichii
6 (2) Branchlets, leaf rachis, and petiolules pubescent, hirsute, or tomentose; inflorescence pubescent   (7)
+ Branchlets, leaf rachis, and petiolules glabrous; inflorescence glabrous or rarely minutely pubescent   (11)
7 (6) Inflorescence half as long as pinnately compound leaf   (8)
+ Inflorescence equal to or longer than pinnately compound leaf   (9)
8 (7) Branchlets, leaf rachis, and inflorescence densely covered with straight hairs; leaflet margin ciliate; drupe bristly, wider than long.   6 T. trichocarpum
+ Branchlets, leaf rachis, and inflorescence covered with curved or curled hairs; leaflet margin glabrous; drupe glabrous, longer than wide.   7 T. sylvestre
9 (7) Leaflets pubescent abaxially along midrib, margin glabrous, petiolule 4-7 mm; drupe subsymmetrical.   8 T. vernicifluum
+ Leaflets hirsute or pubescent on both surfaces, margin ciliate, petiolule sessile to 2 mm; drupe oblique   (10)
10 (9) Plants covered with erect hairs; leaflets 5-7, with acute apex, leaflet margin entire or rarely serrate toward apex.   9 T. hirtellum
+ Plants covered with appressed hairs; leaflets 7-11, with long acuminate to caudate-acuminate apex, leaflet margin crenate.   10 T. yunnanense
11 (6) Inflorescence minutely pubescent; drupe symmetrical.   11 T. acuminatum
+ Inflorescence glabrous; drupe oblique to symmetrical   (12)
12 (11) Shrubs less than 1.5 m tall; inflorescence racemose.   12 T. delavayi
+ Trees or small trees; inflorescence paniculate   (13)
13 (12) Inflorescence half as long as pinnately compound leaf; petals not with featherlike venation pattern   (14)
+ Inflorescence equal to pinnately compound leaf in length; petals with featherlike venation pattern   (15)
14 (13) Leaflet ovate to ovate-oblong, apex long acuminate to caudate; drupe oblique, compressed, acute apically.   13 T. succedaneum
+ Leaflet oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; drupe symmetrical to subsymmetrical, not compressed, long beaked.   14 T. rostratum
15 (13) Leaflet obovate-elliptic to obovate-oblong, apex acute or acuminate, without apiculum; flower 3-4 mm in diam..   15 T. grandiflorum
+ Leaflets falcate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, with apiculum; flower less than 2 mm in diam..   16 T. calcicola

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